Ukuqothulwa Okukhulu KwePermian Kwezinhlobo Zezilwane - Izimbangela Ezingenzeka

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian kwakungenye yezinhlekelele ezinkulu ezenzeka emlandweni omude woMhlaba. I-biosphere yeplanethi ilahlekelwe cishe zonke izilwane zasolwandle kanye nabameleli basemhlabeni abangaphezu kuka-70%. Ingabe ososayensi baye bakwazi ukuqonda izimbangela zokushabalala futhi bahlole imiphumela yako? Yiziphi izinkolelo-mbono eziye zabekwa phambili futhi zingathenjwa?

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

Isikhathi se-Permian

Ukuze umele cishe ukulandelana kwezehlakalo ezikude kangako, kuyadingeka ukuthi ubhekisele esikalini se-geochronological. Sekukonke, i-Paleozoic inezikhathi eziyisi-6. I-Perm iyinkathi emngceleni we-Paleozoic ne-Mesozoic. Ubude bayo ngokwesikali se-geochronological yiminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-47 (kusuka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-298 kuye kwezingama-251 edlule). Zombili izinkathi, zombili iPaleozoic kanye neMesozoic, ziyingxenye ye-Phanerozoic eon.

Inkathi ngayinye yenkathi ye-Paleozoic iyathakazelisa futhi inezigigaba ngendlela yayo. Phakathi nenkathi yamaPermian kwaba nomfutho wokuziphendukela kwemvelo owasungula izinhlobo ezintsha zokuphila, kanye nokushabalala kwePermian kwezinhlobo ezacekela phansi iningi lezilwane zaseMhlabeni.

ukushabalala kwezinhlobo ze-permian

Lithini igama lenkathi

"Perm" igama elijwayelekile ngokumangazayo, awucabangi? Yebo, ufunda lokho kwesokudla, kunezimpande zesiRashiya. Iqiniso liwukuthi ngo-1841 kwatholakala isakhiwo se-tectonic esihambisana nalesi sikhathi se-Paleozoic. Okutholakele kwakuseduze nedolobha lasePerm. Futhi sonke isakhiwo se-tectonic namuhla sibizwa ngokuthi yi-Cis-Ural marginal foredeep.

Umqondo wokuqothulwa kwenqwaba

Umqondo wokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi wethulwa ekusakazweni kwesayensi ngososayensi eNyuvesi yaseChicago. Umsebenzi wenziwa ngu-D. Sepkoski no-D. Raup. Ngokusho kokuhlaziywa kwezibalo, ukuqothulwa kwenqwaba ye-5 kanye nezinhlekelele ezincane ezingaba ngu-20 zihlonziwe. Ulwazi lweminyaka eyizigidi ezingu-540 edlule lwacatshangelwa, njengoba ingekho idatha eyanele yezikhathi zangaphambili.

isithombe sokuqothulwa kwe-permian

Ukuqothulwa okukhulu kuhlanganisa:

  • I-Ordovician-Silurian;
  • I-Devonian;
  • ukushabalala kwePermian kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo (izizathu esizicabangelayo);
  • I-Triassic;
  • I-Cretaceous-Paleogene.

Zonke lezi zenzakalo zenzeka enkathini Paleozoic, Mesozoic kanye Cenozoic. I-periodicity yabo isuka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-26 kuya kwezingu-30, kodwa ososayensi abaningi abakwamukeli isikhathi esimisiwe.

Inhlekelele Enkulu Kakhulu Yezemvelo

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian kuyinhlekelele enkulu kunazo zonke emlandweni weplanethi yethu. Izilwane zasolwandle zafa cishe ngokuphelele, kuphela i-17% yenani eliphelele lezinhlobo zezilwane eziphila emhlabeni. Izinhlobo ezingaphezu kuka-80% zezinambuzane zafa, okungazange kwenzeke ngesikhathi sokushabalala okuningi. Konke lokhu kulahlekelwa kwenzeka eminyakeni engaba ngu-60 000, nakuba abanye ososayensi basikisela ukuthi inkathi yesifo esiwumshayabhuqe yathatha iminyaka engaba yizinkulungwane eziyi-100. Ukulahlekelwa komhlaba wonke okulethwe ukushabalala okukhulu kwePermian kudonse umugqa wokugcina - ngemva kokuweqa, i-Biosphere Yomhlaba yaqala ukuguquguquka.

Izimbangela zokuqothulwa kwePermian

Ukubuyiselwa kwezilwane ngemva kwenhlekelele enkulu kakhulu yemvelo kwathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu. Singasho ukuthi isikhathi eside kunangemva kokunye ukushabalala kwenqwaba. Ososayensi bazama ukwenza kabusha amamodeli abengaholela esihlahleni esiwumshayabhuqe, kodwa kuze kube manje abakwazi ukuvumelana ngisho nangenani lokushaqeka ngaphakathi kwenqubo ngokwayo. Abanye ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi i-Great Permian Extinction eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-250 edlule yaba nokushaqeka okuphezulu oku-3, ezinye izikole zesayensi zithambekele ekukholweni ukuthi kwakukhona ezingu-8 zazo.

Enye yemibono emisha

Ngokusho kososayensi, ukushabalala kwePermian kwandulelwa enye inhlekelele enkulu. Kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-8 ngaphambi komcimbi omkhulu futhi kwalimaza kakhulu i-ecosystem yoMhlaba. Izilwane zaba sengozini, ngakho ukuqothulwa kwesibili phakathi nenkathi efanayo kwaba inhlekelele enkulu kunazo zonke. Uma kungafakazelwa ukuthi kube nokuqothulwa okubili enkathini yePermian, khona-ke umqondo wenkathi yezinhlekelele ezinkulu uzoba nokungabaza. Ngokungakhethi, ake sicacise ukuthi lo mqondo uphikiswana ngezikhundla eziningi, ngaphandle kokucabangela ukushabalala okwengeziwe okungenzeka. Kodwa leli phuzu lokubuka lisabambe izikhundla zesayensi.

izimbangela ezinkulu zokuqothulwa kwe-permian

Izimbangela ezingenzeka zenhlekelele yasePermian

Ukushabalala kwePermian kusadala impikiswano enkulu. Kuvela impikiswano ebukhali mayelana nezimbangela zenhlekelele yemvelo. Zonke izizathu ezingenzeka zibhekwa njengezilingana, kufaka phakathi:

  • izenzakalo eziyingozi zangaphandle nezangaphakathi;
  • izinguquko kancane kancane endaweni.

Ake sizame ukucabangela ezinye zezingxenye zazo zombili izikhundla ngokuningiliziwe ukuze siqonde ukuthi zingaba nomthelela kangakanani ekuqothulweni kwePermian. Izithombe zokuqinisekisa noma eziphikisa okutholakele zinikezwa ososayensi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi njengoba befunda lolu daba.

ukushabalala okukhulu kwePermian eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-250 edlule

Inhlekelele njengembangela yokushabalala kwePermian

Izehlakalo zezinhlekelele zangaphandle nezangaphakathi zibhekwa njengezimbangela ezingenzeka kakhulu zokufa Okukhulu:

  1. Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, kwaba nokwanda okukhulu komsebenzi wezintaba-mlilo endaweni yaseSiberia yanamuhla, okwaholela ekuthululekeni okukhulu kwezicupho. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kube nokuqhuma okukhulu kwe-basalt ngesikhathi esifushane kumqondo we-geological. I-Basalt iguguleka kancane, futhi amatshe azungezile e-sedimentary abhujiswa kalula. Njengobufakazi be-trap magmatism, ososayensi bacaphuna izindawo ezinkulu ngendlela yamathafa anamathafa ayisicaba esisekelweni se-basalt njengesibonelo. Indawo enkulu yogibe iyisicupho saseSiberia, esakhiwe ekupheleni kwesikhathi sePermian. Indawo yayo ingaphezu kuka-2 million km². Ososayensi abavela eNanjing Institute of Geology (China) bafunde ukwakheka kwe-isotopic yamadwala ezicupho zaseSiberia futhi bathola ukuthi ukushabalala kwePermian kwenzeka khona kanye ngesikhathi sokubunjwa kwawo. Akuzange kuthathe iminyaka engaphezu kwezinkulungwane eziyi-100 (ngaphambi kwalokho, kwakukholelwa ukuthi kuthathe isikhathi eside - cishe iminyaka eyisigidi). Umsebenzi wezintaba-mlilo ungase uvuse umphumela we-greenhouse, ubusika bentaba-mlilo nezinye izinqubo ezilimaza i-biosphere.
  2. Izimbangela zenhlekelele ye-biospheric kungaba ukuwa kwe-meteorite eyodwa noma ngaphezulu, ukushayisana kweplanethi ne-asteroid enkulu. Njengobufakazi, i-crater enendawo engaphezu kuka-500 km (Wilks Land, Antarctica) inikezwa. Futhi, ubufakazi bezehlakalo zomthelela butholakale e-Australia (isakhiwo se-Bedout, eNyakatho-mpumalanga yezwekazi). Amasampula amaningi atholakele kamuva aphikiswa ohlelweni locwaningo olujulile.
  3. Esinye sezizathu ezingenzeka sibhekwa ukukhululwa okubukhali kwe-methane kusuka phansi olwandle, okungaholela ekufeni okuphelele kwezinhlobo zasolwandle.
  4. Esinye sezizinda zezinto eziphilayo ezinengqamuzana elilodwa (i-archaea) singaholela enhlekeleleni lapho sithola ikhono lokucubungula izinto eziphilayo, ikhiphe imiqulu emikhulu ye-methane.

ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwe-permian

Izinguquko kancane kancane endaweni

Lesi sigaba sezizathu sihlanganisa amaphuzu amaningana:

  1. Izinguquko kancane kancane ekubunjweni kwamanzi olwandle nomkhathi, okuholela e-anoxia (ukuntuleka komoya-mpilo).
  2. Ukwanda kokoma kwesimo sezulu soMhlaba - umhlaba wezilwane awukwazanga ukuzivumelanisa nezinguquko.
  3. Ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kubangele ukuphazamiseka kwemisinga yolwandle kanye nokuncipha kwamazinga olwandle.

Ngokunokwenzeka, zonke izizathu eziyinkimbinkimbi zathonya, njengoba inhlekelele yayinkulu futhi yenzeka ngesikhathi esifushane.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

Imiphumela Yokufa Okukhulu

Ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwePermian, izimbangela lapho izwe lesayensi lizama ukusungula, kwaba nemiphumela emibi kakhulu. Wonke amayunithi namakilasi anyamalele ngokuphelele. Iningi lama-parareptile lafa (kwasala kuphela okhokho bezimfudu zanamuhla). Inani elikhulu lezinhlobo ze-arthropods nezinhlanzi zanyamalala. Ukwakheka kwama-microorganisms kushintshile. Eqinisweni, iplanethi yayingenalutho, ibuswa isikhunta esidla inyama efile.

Ngemva kokushabalala kwePermian, izinhlobo zezilwane zasinda ezazijwayele ukushisa ngokweqile, amazinga aphansi e-oxygen, ukuntuleka kokudla kanye nokuqukethwe kwesibabule ngokweqile.

Inhlekelele enkulu ye-biospheric yavula indlela yezinhlobo zezilwane ezintsha. I-Triassic, inkathi yokuqala yenkathi ye-Mesozoic, yembula emhlabeni ama-archosaurs (okhokho bama-dinosaurs, izingwenya nezinyoni). Ngemva kokufa Okukhulu, izinhlobo zokuqala zezilwane ezincelisayo zavela eMhlabeni. Ukubuyiselwa kwe-biosphere kwathatha iminyaka eyizigidi ezi-5 kuye kwezingama-30.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian kwakungenye yezinhlekelele ezinkulu ezenzeka emlandweni omude woMhlaba. I-biosphere yeplanethi ilahlekelwe cishe zonke izilwane zasolwandle kanye nabameleli basemhlabeni abangaphezu kuka-70%. Ingabe ososayensi baye bakwazi ukuqonda izimbangela zokushabalala futhi bahlole imiphumela yako? Yiziphi izinkolelo-mbono eziye zabekwa phambili futhi zingathenjwa?

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

Isikhathi se-Permian

Ukuze umele cishe ukulandelana kwezehlakalo ezikude kangako, kuyadingeka ukuthi ubhekisele esikalini se-geochronological. Sekukonke, i-Paleozoic inezikhathi eziyisi-6. I-Perm iyinkathi emngceleni we-Paleozoic ne-Mesozoic. Ubude bayo ngokwesikali se-geochronological yiminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-47 (kusuka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-298 kuye kwezingama-251 edlule). Zombili izinkathi, zombili iPaleozoic kanye neMesozoic, ziyingxenye ye-Phanerozoic eon.

Inkathi ngayinye yenkathi ye-Paleozoic iyathakazelisa futhi inezigigaba ngendlela yayo. Phakathi nenkathi yamaPermian kwaba nomfutho wokuziphendukela kwemvelo owasungula izinhlobo ezintsha zokuphila, kanye nokushabalala kwePermian kwezinhlobo ezacekela phansi iningi lezilwane zaseMhlabeni.

ukushabalala kwezinhlobo ze-permian

Lithini igama lenkathi

"Perm" igama elijwayelekile ngokumangazayo, awucabangi? Yebo, ufunda lokho kwesokudla, kunezimpande zesiRashiya. Iqiniso liwukuthi ngo-1841 kwatholakala isakhiwo se-tectonic esihambisana nalesi sikhathi se-Paleozoic. Okutholakele kwakuseduze nedolobha lasePerm. Futhi sonke isakhiwo se-tectonic namuhla sibizwa ngokuthi yi-Cis-Ural marginal foredeep.

Umqondo wokuqothulwa kwenqwaba

Umqondo wokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi wethulwa ekusakazweni kwesayensi ngososayensi eNyuvesi yaseChicago. Umsebenzi wenziwa ngu-D. Sepkoski no-D. Raup. Ngokusho kokuhlaziywa kwezibalo, ukuqothulwa kwenqwaba ye-5 kanye nezinhlekelele ezincane ezingaba ngu-20 zihlonziwe. Ulwazi lweminyaka eyizigidi ezingu-540 edlule lwacatshangelwa, njengoba ingekho idatha eyanele yezikhathi zangaphambili.

isithombe sokuqothulwa kwe-permian

Ukuqothulwa okukhulu kuhlanganisa:

  • I-Ordovician-Silurian;
  • I-Devonian;
  • ukushabalala kwePermian kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo (izizathu esizicabangelayo);
  • I-Triassic;
  • I-Cretaceous-Paleogene.

Zonke lezi zenzakalo zenzeka enkathini Paleozoic, Mesozoic kanye Cenozoic. I-periodicity yabo isuka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-26 kuya kwezingu-30, kodwa ososayensi abaningi abakwamukeli isikhathi esimisiwe.

Inhlekelele Enkulu Kakhulu Yezemvelo

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian kuyinhlekelele enkulu kunazo zonke emlandweni weplanethi yethu. Izilwane zasolwandle zafa cishe ngokuphelele, kuphela i-17% yenani eliphelele lezinhlobo zezilwane eziphila emhlabeni. Izinhlobo ezingaphezu kuka-80% zezinambuzane zafa, okungazange kwenzeke ngesikhathi sokushabalala okuningi. Konke lokhu kulahlekelwa kwenzeka eminyakeni engaba ngu-60 000, nakuba abanye ososayensi basikisela ukuthi inkathi yesifo esiwumshayabhuqe yathatha iminyaka engaba yizinkulungwane eziyi-100. Ukulahlekelwa komhlaba wonke okulethwe ukushabalala okukhulu kwePermian kudonse umugqa wokugcina - ngemva kokuweqa, i-Biosphere Yomhlaba yaqala ukuguquguquka.

Izimbangela zokuqothulwa kwePermian

Ukubuyiselwa kwezilwane ngemva kwenhlekelele enkulu kakhulu yemvelo kwathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu. Singasho ukuthi isikhathi eside kunangemva kokunye ukushabalala kwenqwaba. Ososayensi bazama ukwenza kabusha amamodeli abengaholela esihlahleni esiwumshayabhuqe, kodwa kuze kube manje abakwazi ukuvumelana ngisho nangenani lokushaqeka ngaphakathi kwenqubo ngokwayo. Abanye ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi i-Great Permian Extinction eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-250 edlule yaba nokushaqeka okuphezulu oku-3, ezinye izikole zesayensi zithambekele ekukholweni ukuthi kwakukhona ezingu-8 zazo.

Enye yemibono emisha

Ngokusho kososayensi, ukushabalala kwePermian kwandulelwa enye inhlekelele enkulu. Kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-8 ngaphambi komcimbi omkhulu futhi kwalimaza kakhulu i-ecosystem yoMhlaba. Izilwane zaba sengozini, ngakho ukuqothulwa kwesibili phakathi nenkathi efanayo kwaba inhlekelele enkulu kunazo zonke. Uma kungafakazelwa ukuthi kube nokuqothulwa okubili enkathini yePermian, khona-ke umqondo wenkathi yezinhlekelele ezinkulu uzoba nokungabaza. Ngokungakhethi, ake sicacise ukuthi lo mqondo uphikiswana ngezikhundla eziningi, ngaphandle kokucabangela ukushabalala okwengeziwe okungenzeka. Kodwa leli phuzu lokubuka lisabambe izikhundla zesayensi.

izimbangela ezinkulu zokuqothulwa kwe-permian

Izimbangela ezingenzeka zenhlekelele yasePermian

Ukushabalala kwePermian kusadala impikiswano enkulu. Kuvela impikiswano ebukhali mayelana nezimbangela zenhlekelele yemvelo. Zonke izizathu ezingenzeka zibhekwa njengezilingana, kufaka phakathi:

  • izenzakalo eziyingozi zangaphandle nezangaphakathi;
  • izinguquko kancane kancane endaweni.

Ake sizame ukucabangela ezinye zezingxenye zazo zombili izikhundla ngokuningiliziwe ukuze siqonde ukuthi zingaba nomthelela kangakanani ekuqothulweni kwePermian. Izithombe zokuqinisekisa noma eziphikisa okutholakele zinikezwa ososayensi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi njengoba befunda lolu daba.

ukushabalala okukhulu kwePermian eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-250 edlule

Inhlekelele njengembangela yokushabalala kwePermian

Izehlakalo zezinhlekelele zangaphandle nezangaphakathi zibhekwa njengezimbangela ezingenzeka kakhulu zokufa Okukhulu:

  1. Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, kwaba nokwanda okukhulu komsebenzi wezintaba-mlilo endaweni yaseSiberia yanamuhla, okwaholela ekuthululekeni okukhulu kwezicupho. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kube nokuqhuma okukhulu kwe-basalt ngesikhathi esifushane kumqondo we-geological. I-Basalt iguguleka kancane, futhi amatshe azungezile e-sedimentary abhujiswa kalula. Njengobufakazi be-trap magmatism, ososayensi bacaphuna izindawo ezinkulu ngendlela yamathafa anamathafa ayisicaba esisekelweni se-basalt njengesibonelo. Indawo enkulu yogibe iyisicupho saseSiberia, esakhiwe ekupheleni kwesikhathi sePermian. Indawo yayo ingaphezu kuka-2 million km². Ososayensi abavela eNanjing Institute of Geology (China) bafunde ukwakheka kwe-isotopic yamadwala ezicupho zaseSiberia futhi bathola ukuthi ukushabalala kwePermian kwenzeka khona kanye ngesikhathi sokubunjwa kwawo. Akuzange kuthathe iminyaka engaphezu kwezinkulungwane eziyi-100 (ngaphambi kwalokho, kwakukholelwa ukuthi kuthathe isikhathi eside - cishe iminyaka eyisigidi). Umsebenzi wezintaba-mlilo ungase uvuse umphumela we-greenhouse, ubusika bentaba-mlilo nezinye izinqubo ezilimaza i-biosphere.
  2. Izimbangela zenhlekelele ye-biospheric kungaba ukuwa kwe-meteorite eyodwa noma ngaphezulu, ukushayisana kweplanethi ne-asteroid enkulu. Njengobufakazi, i-crater enendawo engaphezu kuka-500 km (Wilks Land, Antarctica) inikezwa. Futhi, ubufakazi bezehlakalo zomthelela butholakale e-Australia (isakhiwo se-Bedout, eNyakatho-mpumalanga yezwekazi). Amasampula amaningi atholakele kamuva aphikiswa ohlelweni locwaningo olujulile.
  3. Esinye sezizathu ezingenzeka sibhekwa ukukhululwa okubukhali kwe-methane kusuka phansi olwandle, okungaholela ekufeni okuphelele kwezinhlobo zasolwandle.
  4. Esinye sezizinda zezinto eziphilayo ezinengqamuzana elilodwa (i-archaea) singaholela enhlekeleleni lapho sithola ikhono lokucubungula izinto eziphilayo, ikhiphe imiqulu emikhulu ye-methane.

ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwe-permian

Izinguquko kancane kancane endaweni

Lesi sigaba sezizathu sihlanganisa amaphuzu amaningana:

  1. Izinguquko kancane kancane ekubunjweni kwamanzi olwandle nomkhathi, okuholela e-anoxia (ukuntuleka komoya-mpilo).
  2. Ukwanda kokoma kwesimo sezulu soMhlaba - umhlaba wezilwane awukwazanga ukuzivumelanisa nezinguquko.
  3. Ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kubangele ukuphazamiseka kwemisinga yolwandle kanye nokuncipha kwamazinga olwandle.

Ngokunokwenzeka, zonke izizathu eziyinkimbinkimbi zathonya, njengoba inhlekelele yayinkulu futhi yenzeka ngesikhathi esifushane.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

Imiphumela Yokufa Okukhulu

Ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwePermian, izimbangela lapho izwe lesayensi lizama ukusungula, kwaba nemiphumela emibi kakhulu. Wonke amayunithi namakilasi anyamalele ngokuphelele. Iningi lama-parareptile lafa (kwasala kuphela okhokho bezimfudu zanamuhla). Inani elikhulu lezinhlobo ze-arthropods nezinhlanzi zanyamalala. Ukwakheka kwama-microorganisms kushintshile. Eqinisweni, iplanethi yayingenalutho, ibuswa isikhunta esidla inyama efile.

Ngemva kokushabalala kwePermian, izinhlobo zezilwane zasinda ezazijwayele ukushisa ngokweqile, amazinga aphansi e-oxygen, ukuntuleka kokudla kanye nokuqukethwe kwesibabule ngokweqile.

Inhlekelele enkulu ye-biospheric yavula indlela yezinhlobo zezilwane ezintsha. I-Triassic, inkathi yokuqala yenkathi ye-Mesozoic, yembula emhlabeni ama-archosaurs (okhokho bama-dinosaurs, izingwenya nezinyoni). Ngemva kokufa Okukhulu, izinhlobo zokuqala zezilwane ezincelisayo zavela eMhlabeni. Ukubuyiselwa kwe-biosphere kwathatha iminyaka eyizigidi ezi-5 kuye kwezingama-30.

I-Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Lesi ngesinye sezehlakalo ezinhlanu eziyinhlekelele iplanethi eye yahlangabezana nazo kuwo wonke umlando wayo wokwakheka komhlaba. Nakuba kunenkolelo evamile yokuthi inqubo yokuqothulwa lapho ama-dinosaurs anyamalala khona yayiyingozi kakhulu, akunjalo.

Ngokocwaningo kanye nedatha eqoqwe ngochwepheshe endaweni, ukuqothulwa kwenqwaba enkulu kwenzeka ekupheleni kwesifunda sasePerm nasekuqaleni kwenkathi ye-Triassic. Isizathu salokhu ukuthi phakathi nale nqubo, eyenzeka eminyakeni engaba yizigidi ezingu-250 edlule, cishe zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo emhlabeni zanyamalala.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian-Triassic kwaqeda ngaphezu kwama-90% ezinhlobo zezilwane ezazisemhlabeni. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi sokwakheka komhlaba, uMhlaba wawugcwele amandla nokuphila. Yonke indawo kwakunezinhlobo eziphilayo ezinezici ezihlukahlukene kakhulu. Lokhu kuye kwaboniswa ngosizo lwezinsalela ezitholakele.

Ngemva kwalolu hlelo, uMhlaba waphelela ogwadule, ngaphansi kwezimo ezimbi, nezinhlobo ezimbalwa ezasinda ngokusemandleni azo. Nokho, lokhu kushabalala ngobuningi kwabeka inkundla yokuvela kabusha kwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezazibusa le planethi eminyakeni eyisigidi ezayo: ama-dinosaurs.

inkomba

  • 1 Izizathu
    • 1.1 Umsebenzi oshubile wentaba-mlilo
    • 1.2 Umthelela we-Meteor
    • 1.3 Ukukhishwa kwe-methane hydrates
  • 2 Umthelela ezimila nezilwane
    • 2.1 Ezitshalweni
    • 2.2 Ezilwaneni
  • 3 imiphumela
    • 3.1 Ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke
    • 3.2 Amazinga komoyampilo angazinzile ezilwandle
    • 3.3 Imvula ene-asidi
  • 4 Izixhumanisi

izizathu

Ukuqothulwa okwenzeka ekupheleni kwePermian futhi ekuqaleni kwe-Triassic kuye kwafundwa iminyaka eminingi. Ochwepheshe baye banikela amashumi eminyaka bezama ukuthola ukuthi yini ebangela umonakalo onjalo.

Ngeshwa, kunemibono kuphela esekelwe ocwaningweni olujulile nolukanembeza olwenziwa ngezinsalela ezitholakele.

Umsebenzi omkhulu wentaba-mlilo

Ososayensi bayavuma ukuthi ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okwatholwa iplanethi ekupheleni kwesifunda sasePerm kwakungenye yezimbangela eziyinhloko zalokhu kushabalala okukhulu.

Lo msebenzi wawushubile ikakhulukazi esifundeni saseSiberia esibizwa ngokuthi "Izicupho ZaseSiberia". Njengamanje, lesi sifunda sicebile ngamatshe entaba-mlilo. Ngesikhathi sePermian, ukuqhuma okulandelanayo kwenzeka endaweni, okwathatha iminyaka engaba yisigidi.

Lokhu kuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kukhiphe inani elibi kakhulu le-lava emkhathini, izilinganiso ezimbi zazilinganiselwa ku-3 million km3. Ngokuhambisana nalolu daka, inani elikhulu le-carbon dioxide nalo likhishwa emkhathini.

Zonke lezi zehlakalo zazanele ukubangela ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu okumangalisayo, kukhuphule izinga lokushisa lomhlaba wonke ngamadigri amaningana.

Kodwa-ke, akuwona wodwa umhlaba othintekile, njengoba izikhungo zamanzi nazo zathola umthamo wazo womonakalo njengoba zangcoliswa kakhulu ngenxa yokukhuphuka kwezinga lezinto ezinobuthi, okuyi-mercury eyayihamba phambili kuzo.

umthelela we-meteorite

Ukuwa kwe-meteorite mhlawumbe kuyisizathu esivame ukukhulunywa ngochwepheshe kulo mkhakha. Kunobufakazi be-geological bokuthi ngesikhathi sokwanda okukhulu, i-meteorite enkulu yaphahlazeka ebusweni bomhlaba, yadala isiphithiphithi nokubhujiswa, okwaholela ekunciphiseni kokuphila emhlabeni.

I-crater enkulu enobubanzi obungaba ngu-500 km2 isanda kutholwa ezwenikazi lase-Antarctica. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ukuze i-asteroid ishiye umgodi walolu hlobo, kuzodingeka ibe nobubanzi obucishe bube ngu-50 km.

Ngokufanayo, ososayensi babeka ukuthi umthelela wale asteroid wabangela i-fireball enkulu eyabangela imimoya ecishe ibe ngu-7,000 km/h futhi yadedela ukunyakaza kwe-telluric okungabe kudlule izikali zokulinganisa ezaziwa manje. ena

I-Ria, okwakufanele ikhiphe le meteorite phezu komthelela eMhlabeni, yayingaba ama-megaton ayizigidi eziyi-1000. Nakanjani lokhu kubonakala kungenye yezimbangela zalokhu kushabalala kwenqwaba.

Ukukhishwa kwe-methane hydrates

Kutholwe amadiphozithi amakhulu ama-solidified methane hydrates olwandle. Kucatshangwa ukuthi izinga lokushisa lolwandle liye lenyuka ngenxa yomsebenzi oshubile wentaba-mlilo, umthelela we-asteroid, noma kokubili.

Iqiniso liwukuthi ukunyuka kwezinga lokushisa kwamanzi kwabangela ukuba lezi zinhlayiya ze-methane hydrate zincibilike, zikhiphele inqwaba ye-methane emkhathini.

Nokho, kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi i-methane ingenye yamagesi abamba ukushisa aqine kakhulu, ngakho ngesikhathi ikhishwa, yayibangela izinga lokushisa loMhlaba lenyuke ngokushesha.

Kukhulunywa ngokwanda okungaba ngu-10°C, okwakuyinhlekelele ngokuphelele ezintweni eziphilayo ezaziphila ndawonye ngaleso sikhathi.

Umthelela ezimila nezilwane

Izidalwa eziphilayo ezazihlala kule planethi ngaleso sikhathi zaziyimbangela eyinhloko yalesi sibhicongo esibi, okwavela ukuthi "Ukufa Okukhulu".

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yini eyabangela le nhlekelele, okuqinisekile ukuthi iplanethi yashintsha indawo yayo futhi yaba indawo okungenakuhlalwa kuyo yezinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo nezilwane.

Ezitshalweni

Nakuba kuyiqiniso ukuthi kwezinye izinqubo zokushabalala kwatholakala ukuthi izitshalo zihlangabezane nazo kahle, kulokhu kushabalala kwanqunywa ngamarekhodi ezinsalela zasendulo kanye nezilinganiso zokuthi izitshalo zathinteka ngendlela efanayo nezilwane.

Ngenxa yoshintsho olukhulu ezimweni zemvelo, inani elikhulu lezitshalo zasemhlabeni liye lathinteka. Phakathi kwazo singabala: ama-gymnosperms, izitshalo ezikhulayo zembewu kanye ne-peat processing.

Ngokuqondene nalezi zamuva, kwanqunywa ngokuhlola izinsalela ezihlukahlukene okwakudingeka zicishwe noma okungenani zehliswe ngamanani amakhulu, njengoba zingatholakalanga izinsalela zekhabhoni.

Ngokufanayo, ucwaningo lwamuva lubonise ukuthi uhlobo oluthile lwesikhunta lwaluchuma phakathi nalesi sikhathi, ukhuni olubolayo luyindawo yalo ekhethekile. Uma kucatshangelwa lokhu, kungaphikiswana ngokuthi iziqephu ezinkulu zezihlahla nezitshalo ezazisePangea zacekelwa phansi yilokhu kushabalala okukhulu.

Izilwane

Ngokuqondene nezilwane, zahlupheka kakhulu kulokhu "Ukufa Okukhulu", ngoba ngokuvamile, cishe ama-90% azo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezazihlala emhlabeni ngaleso sikhathi zafa ..

Izinhlobo zasolwandle mhlawumbe yizona ezithinteke kakhulu, njengoba u-96% wezinhlobo zanyamalala. Ngokuqondene nezinhlobo zasemhlabeni, ukushabalala kwathinta i-70% yezinhlobo zezilwane, kushiya abameleli abambalwa kuphela.

Phakathi kwalezo zinhlobo ezikwazile ukusinda kule nhlekelele kwatholakala ama-dinosaurs okuqala, kamuva afika ukubusa uMhlaba eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-80 eyalandela.

Omunye umphumela oqondile embusweni wezilwane ukushabalala ngokuphelele kwama-trilobite. Iqiniso elibalulekile ukuthi ukushabalala okukhulu kwehlumela lePermian-Triassic kwaba ukuphela kwento ephinde yathinta izinambuzane.

umthelela

Ukushabalala kwePermian-Triassic kwakubi kakhulu kangangokuthi kwathatha uMhlaba isilinganiso seminyaka eyizigidi ezingu-10 ukuze ululame.

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kwakuyini imbangela noma izimbangela ezibangele lesi simo, iqiniso liwukuthi kamuva uMhlaba wawungekho esimweni sokuhlala. Ngokocwaningo kanye nemibhalo egciniwe yezinsalela, iplanethi isiphenduke indawo enjengogwadule, enobutha, engenazo izimila.

Miningi imiphumela eholele kulokhu kushabalala kwenqwaba. Phakathi kwabo singabala:

Ukushisa kakhulu komhlaba

Yebo, namuhla ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke kuyinkinga engathi sína yendawo ezungezile, kodwa leyo eyayikhona ngaleso sikhathi yayishube kakhulu kunale ekhona namuhla. Umkhathi wawugcwele amagesi abamba ukushisa, amaningi awo anamandla kakhulu kunawanamuhla.

Ngenxa yalokhu, izinga lokushisa emhlabeni laliphezulu kakhulu, okwenza ukuthuthukiswa kokuphila nokusinda kwezinhlobo ezikwazi ukuzisindisa kube nzima kakhulu.

Amazinga komoyampilo angazinzile olwandle

Ngenxa yezinguquko ezihlukahlukene zendawo ezungezile, amazinga omoya-mpilo aye ehla afinyelela emazingeni angathembeki neze, okuholela ekuqothulweni kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezazisekhona lapho. Nokho, ngenxa yenqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo, abaningi bakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nalezi zimo ezinobutha futhi basinda.

Imvula ene-asidi

Imvula ene-asidi ayiyona into eyavela esikhathini samanje, kodwa ibilokhu ikhona. Umehluko wukuthi namuhla kubangelwa ukungcoliswa komoya okubangelwa abantu.

Ngenxa yesimo sezulu esingazinzile ngalesi sikhathi, amagesi amaningi adedelwa emkhathini, asabela namanzi emafwini, abangela ukuthi amanzi ayena kakhulu angcoliswe kakhulu futhi alimale kabi. izinto eziphilayo ezazisekhona emhlabeni.

izixhumanisi

  1. Benton M. J. (2005). Lapho Ukuphila Kwacishe Kwafa: Ukuqothulwa Kwenqwaba Okukhulu Kunazo Zonke Isikhathi. London: Thames no-Hudson.
  2. Clarkson, M. O. et al. (2015) "I-acidification yolwandle kanye nokuqedwa kwe-Permian-Triassic mass". Isayensi 34 (6231)
  3. U-Ervin D. (1994). I-Permo - Ukuqothulwa kwe-Triassic. Imvelo. 367 (6460). 231-235
  4. U-Kaiho, et al., (2001) Inhlekelele eqhutshwa yi-Fireball ekupheleni kwe-Permian: Ubufakazi bokukhishwa kwesulfure ku-mantle. I-Geology, 29, 815.
  5. U-Shen S.-Z. nabanye (2011). "Ukulinganisa Ukuphela Kwe-Permian Mass Etinction".
  6. Wignall, P. kanye noHallam, A. (1992). I-Anoxia njengembangela yokuqothulwa kwe-Permian kanye ne-Triassic Mass: I-Facies evela eNyakatho ye-Italy naseNtshonalanga ye-USA. Paleo. 93(1-2). 21-46

Ucwaningo olusha lweqembu lamazwe ngamazwe lososayensi lukhuluma ngesinye isici ekuqhumeni kwezicupho ezifanayo zaseSiberia. Ngokokuqala ngqa, ochwepheshe baseJalimane, e-Italy naseCanada bakwazi ukwakha kabusha isithombe sezenzakalo zaleyo minyaka ngendlela ephelele, besebenzisa, phakathi kwezinye izinto, imodeli ye-geochemical. Ocwaningweni, ososayensi okokuqala ngqa basebenzise amagobolondo e-fossil brachiopods aphile emhlabeni iminyaka engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-500, ngakho-ke izinqubo eziningi ezenzeka esikhathini esidlule zingaqondwa ekuhlaziyeni kwazo.

Isizathu esingaba imbangela yokushabalala okukhulu kakhulu emlandweni sitholakele / © vladivostok.onlineNgakho, ngoJuni walo nyaka, sabhala ngocwaningo olwabonisa ukuthi ukushabalala kwePermian kwaba kubi nakakhulu ukushiswa kwamalahle (lakhelwe i-magma eshisayo evela ukuqhuma kwezicupho zaseSiberia), okwaholela ekwenyukeni kwezinga lokushisa olwandle kuze kufike kuma-degree angama-40, kanye nokwenyuka kwamazinga okushisa emhlabeni. Konke lokhu kuye kwaholela ekuqothulweni kwenani elikhulu lezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Kutholwe imbangela engaba imbangela yokushabalala okukhulu kakhulu emlandweni

Ithimba lamazwe ngamazwe lososayensi liye lakha kabusha izenzakalo zokuqothulwa okukhulu kakhulu emlandweni woMhlaba - i-Permian-Triassic - futhi laqamba ukhiye, ngokombono wabo, into eholele enhlekeleleni.

Ngokulinganisa izakhi ze-boron ze-isotopic kumathambo, ososayensi bakwazi ukulandelela ushintsho kumanani we-pH emanzini olwandle eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-252 edlule. Futhi njengoba le nkomba ihlobene nokuhlushwa kwe-carbon dioxide emkhathini, abacwaningi bakwazi ukuyakha kabusha, bese beyihlaziya besebenzisa indlela ye-isotope enembayo ephezulu kanye ne-high-resolution microanalysis ku-spectrometer enkulu yesimanje.

Ukuqothulwa sekuphenduke ukuphela kwento eyaziwayo nesakazeke kabanzi phakathi kwezinambuzane. Izimbangela zezinhlekelele ezinjalo ziyizingxabano zesayensi phakathi kwabasekeli bemibono ye-polar: i-biological (yangaphakathi) kanye nenhlekelele (yangaphandle). Ngaphezu kwalokho, kukhona ukungqubuzana kuleyo naleyo mibono.

Ngenxa yalokho, ososayensi bathola ukuthi kwakuyini ukuhlushwa kwe-carbon dioxide emkhathini emngceleni wePermian ne-Triassic, futhi ukuthola lezi zinkomba ngaphambi kokuqhuma kogibe. Ngemuva kwalokho, ababhali bomsebenzi bethula idatha yezinqubo ze-geochemical zalezo zikhathi kumodeli. Imiphumela yabonisa ukufudumala kanye ne-asidi yolwandle, okwakuhlotshaniswa nokukhishwa okukhulu kwe-carbon dioxide emkhathini. Lokhu kwaholela ekushabalaleni kwezinto eziphilayo zasolwandle, kodwa nasemhlabeni, ukukhululwa kwe-CO2 kwabangela ukwanda kwezinga lokushisa nesimo sezulu, okuphinde kwathinta ukunyamalala kwezilwane eziningi zasemhlabeni.

Umsebenzi ushicilelwe kumagazini i- Nature Geoscience . Umcimbi wokushabalala kwePermian-Triassic - noma Ukuqothulwa kwePermian Mass okwenzeka eminyakeni engaba yizigidi ezingu-252 edlule - uthathwa njengomkhulu kunayo yonke emlandweni, wabulala amaphesenti angama-95 ezilwane zasolwandle kanye namaphesenti angama-73 ezilwane ezinomgogodla zasemhlabeni.

4.3

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian kwenzeka kudala ngaphambi kwama-dinosaurs - eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-252 edlule. I-90% yezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zafa, futhi lokhu kwashintsha kakhulu ibhalansi yamandla emhlabeni. Izilwane ezincelisayo zazingase zivele ngaphambili, kodwa inhlekelele yaholela ekuthuthukisweni okusheshayo kwama-dinosaurs. Kungani kwenzeka inhlekelele yasePerm futhi kwaqhubeka kanjani ukuziphendukela kwemvelo ngemva kwayo, ake sikuthole.

Sekukonke, kuye kwaba nokuqothulwa okukhulu okuhlanu emlandweni weplanethi yethu. Okudume kakhulu futhi okudumile esikweni elidumile kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-65 edlule, lapho ama-dinosaurs eshabalala. Futhi sonke sazi kahle ukuthi kwaholela kuphi. Ngemva kwazo, kwakhula izilwane ezincelisayo ezilwaneni, futhi izitshalo eziqhakazayo zathatha lezi zitshalo.
Kodwa eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-187 ngaphambi kwalokho, ukushabalala kwe-Permian mass kwenzeka. Yayinkulu! Ake sibone ukuthi lokhu kuye kwaholela miphi imiphumela ekuguqukeni kwezilwane zasendle.

Amagama ambalwa mayelana nenkathi yePermian ngokwayo (yathatha kusukela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-298 kuya kwezingu-252 edlule). Igama lanikezwa ngenxa yokuthi okokuqala ngqa izinsalela zezilwane zalesi sikhathi zatholakala ngekhulu le-19 esifundazweni sasePerm. Eqinisweni, endaweni yaseRussia yanamuhla, izilwane nezitshalo zalesi sikhathi zimelelwe ngokucebile kakhulu. Okuwukuphela kwenkathi enkulu lapho isimo sezulu sasiseduze ngangokunokwenzeka nesimanje.
Inkathi yamaPermian yaphela ngenhlekelele

Ukuthi kungani ukushabalala kwenzeka akucaci kahle. I-hypothesis eyinhloko izintaba-mlilo zaseSiberia, ezazisebenza kakhulu. Ingabe uke wezwa mayelana nemvelo eyingqayizivele yePutorana Plateau? Ngaleso sikhathi, lezi kwakuyizintaba-mlilo ezinamandla, umlotha owawumboze iLanga futhi washintsha isimo sezulu emhlabeni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga omoya-mpilo ehla kakhulu.

Ngokwesilinganiso, ama-90% ezinhlobo zezilwane ashabalala. Okungukuthi, ama-96% olwandle kanye nama-73% omhlaba, kodwa ngaleso sikhathi izilwandle zazigcwele kakhulu. Ngisho nezinambuzane eziningi, ebezilokhu zimelana nanoma yiziphi izinhlekelele zemvelo, ziye zafa. I-biosphere ngemva kokuqothulwa yabuyiselwa eminye iminyaka eyizigidi ezingu-30! Leli irekhodi eliphelele emlandweni weplanethi yethu.

Kuyamangaza ikakhulukazi ukuthi ama-trilobite athintwa ukushabalala. Kwakuyizidalwa ezazibonakala zingenakufa ezazisinde ekufeni kwabantu abaningi ngaphambili. Phakathi nezigidi zeminyaka, ziye zasakazeka kuwo wonke umhlaba.
Kwakuyizilwane ezihlekisayo, into efana nengxube yenkalankala nofudu, kodwa eshesha kakhulu. Amehlo ayetshalwe ezihlahleni - i-trilobite yangena ogwini futhi yahlala, ibheke ngaphandle ifuna ukudla noma ilindele ingozi.

Ama-Trilobite ayenamagobolondo anomzimba othambile ngaphansi. Lapho ehlaselwa izilwane ezizingelayo, ama-trilobite ayegoqeka njengama-hedgehog futhi ayengathinteki. Lezi zilwane zathatha indawo yazo yemvelo, kodwa azizange zisinde ekuqothulweni kwePermian.

Ama-Trilobite ayencamela amanzi angashoni, futhi izinga lolwandle lehla kakhulu phakathi nenhlekelele yasePermian. Futhi ekujuleni kwakungasenakunethezeka ukuphila kwabo - izinhlanzi ezinemihlathi enamandla zazibusa lapho, ezazibhoboza kalula igobolondo labo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga e-oxygen ehla kakhulu, ahlasela izinambuzane, ama-trilobite, kanye nokhokho bethu, okhokho-omkhulu bazo zonke izilwane ezincelisayo.
Okhokho bezilwane ezincelisayo baya eceleni kokuziphendukela kwemvelo

Yini eshintshile? Okokuqala nje, i-ecosystem ngokwayo. Ngaphambili, yayibuswa yizinto eziphilayo ezipholile, "ezihlala". Athathelwa indawo amanye amaselula nasheshayo.

I-Synapsids, igatsha okwavela kulo izilwane ezincelisayo, lalivame ukubusa. Bavela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-318 edlule futhi bathatha yonke iplanethi eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-50. Ngemva kokushabalala kwePermian, leli gatsha lalahlwa emashumini ezigidi zeminyaka edlule.

Nansi omunye wabameleli abaqhakazile be-synapsids - i-therocephalus, noma, njengoba ibizwa nangokuthi, impisi yengwenya.
Ezinkulu kakhulu zakhula zaba ngamamitha amabili, abanye abamele babenamazinyo anobuthi. Wasinda ekuqothulweni kwePermian, nakuba inani labantu lehla kakhulu. Kodwa-ke ngokushesha wafa, engakwazi ukumelana nomncintiswano.

Kodwa ama-archosaur angabonakali - okhokho bezibankwakazi - beza phambili. Isizathu silula - bambalwa abancintisana nabo.

Ama-Dinosaurs ayechuma ngaphansi kwezimo zamazinga aphansi komoyampilo. Kunalokho, kwabazuzisa bona. Okokuqala, kuyashisa, ngoba i-carbon dioxide ikhiqiza umphumela we-greenhouse. Okwesibili, izitshalo zikhula ngokushesha okukhulu, njengoba lokhu kusheshisa i-photosynthesis. Ngesikhathi sama-dinosaurs, izitshalo zingakhula ngokushesha izikhathi ezi-3-5. Futhi lokho kusho ukudla okuningi kwezilwane ezihuquzelayo ezisafufusa.
Ngakho, ukushabalala kwenqwaba yamaPermian kwaqala uchungechunge lokuziphendukela kwemvelo olwaholela ekubonakaleni kwama-dinosaurs. Kwathi eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-65 edlule, ama-dinosaurs ayezalanisa nawo afa, namuhla, linye kuphela igatsha elisele kuma-archosaur - izingwenya. Phakathi kwama-synapsid, abameleli bamaqembu amathathu kuphela abasinda enhlekeleleni - ama-dicynodonts amakhulu ama-herbivorous kanye nama-therocephals amancane (cishe ama-insectivorous noma omnivorous) nama-cynodonts, okuvela kuwo okhokho bethu eLate Triassic - izilwane ezincelisayo
. noma ngaphansi, kodwa izindlela zamanje zokuqomisana azibavumeli ukuthi banciphise isilinganiso sesikhathi sokushabalala kwePermian sibe isikhathi esingaphansi kweminyaka eyinkulungwane ye-30.
Ayikho incazelo evamile eyamukelwayo yezimbangela zokushabalala. Kucatshangelwa izizathu eziningi ezingase zibe khona


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