I-Diopter sight - izici nezici

 

Okuqukethwe

  1. I-Diopter sight - incazelo
  2. Idivayisi kanye nesimiso sokusebenza kwe-diopter sight
  3. Amamodeli wokubona we-Diopter
  4. Umehluko omkhulu we-diopter sight
  5. Izinzuzo nezingozi ze-diopter sight

Ukuthi udubula kahle kangakanani nokuthi ushaya ithagethi akuxhomekile kuphela ekusebenzeni kwakho, uhlobo lwesikhali nezici zaso, kodwa futhi nakububanzi. Lokhu kuyisici esibalulekile sesibhamu, esifana nomgqomo nesitoko. I-diopter sight inokunemba okuphezulu futhi idumile kubathandi bokuzingela nabadubula ezemidlalo.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

I-Diopter sight - incazelo

I-diopter sight isetshenziselwa i-pneumatic, ukuzingela, ukudubula ukulwa. Omunye ucabanga ukuthi lolu hlobo luphazamisa umbono omuhle futhi lulahlekelwe uma kuqhathaniswa nama-optics kanye nezinketho ezivulekile. Kodwa lapha kubalulekile ukwazi zonke izici zokusebenza kwalo mshini.

Kudingekile ukubeka isihlathi phambi kwesinqe ukuze iso lenzeka eduze nendawo engemuva. Ngakho-ke ungakwazi ukuqondisa kahle indawo yangaphambili ekuhlosweni futhi ucabangele imingcele yayo ecacile. Kubasebenzisi bale divayisi, iphutha elifanayo lijwayelekile: abantu baqala ukuqondanisa indawo yangaphambili ngokuhlobene nengemuva, iso elibonakala lincane. Kodwa lobu bukhulu banele ukudubula okuphumelelayo.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Izibhamu ezinezithombe ze-diopter zithandwa kakhulu abazingeli. Zinezinzuzo eziningi ngaphezu kwezinketho zesimanje ze-optical. I-diopter sight ikuvumela ukuthi uqondanise ngokushesha umbono wangaphambili futhi ufinyelele umgomo wakho.

I-diopter sight isetshenziswa ku-biathlon, ukudubula kwezemidlalo ngezibhamu zomoya nezincane. Ibizwa nangokuthi i-ring sight. Ngalolu hlobo, umuntu ubona impukane ngembobo ekhethekile (imbobo) futhi iqondanise isikhungo sayo nalokho okuhlosiwe.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Lo mbono ungcono ngezindlela eziningi kunomshini ovulekile. Ukuhlosisa kungenziwa ngokushesha okukhulu ngokwenza kube lula ukuvumelanisa indawo engaphambili nembobo. Ukudubula kuzobe kunembe kakhulu ngenxa yomugqa omkhulu wokubuka. Lezi zimfanelo zisiza ukudubula ngokunembe kakhulu ezimweni lapho ukukhanya kunganele.

Kuyathakazelisa! I-Optical sight ye-pneumatics: isilinganiso samamodeli angcono kakhulu namathiphu wokushuna.

Idivayisi kanye nesimiso sokusebenza kwe-diopter sight

Umgomo we-diopter sight usezicini zombono wethu. Phela, asikwazi ngesikhathi esifanayo ukugxila ezintweni eziqhelelene nomfundi, okungukuthi, asikwazi ukugxila kulokho okuhlosiwe, okuphambili nokubona kwangemuva ngesikhathi esisodwa. Ama-scopes athuthukiswa ukuze asuse ukubaluleka kokugxila ekuboneni okungemuva.

Umgomo wokusebenza ukuthi umdubuli ubheka ngasemva futhi unaka kuphela okungaphambili kanye nethagethi uqobo. Ithagethi izobonakala kahle endaweni ethile lapho kubonwa khona futhi, vele, izindlela zokuzidubula. Ngenxa yezici ezinjalo, kuvela ukudubula ngokunembe kakhulu, kunomuzwa wokuthi isibhamu ngokwaso siqondisa lapho futhi kanjani ukudubula.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Idivayisi yombono onjalo inombono wangaphambili we-classic kanye nenhloso yesakhiwo esikhethekile esine-disk eyindilinga, phakathi nendawo lapho kukhona i-peephole enobubanzi obufika ku-2 mm. Ibizwa ngokuthi "diopter". Le mbobo, noma imbobo, ingaba ngobukhulu obuhlukahlukene. Kokuncane kakhulu, ubukhali buphakeme, kodwa ukugeleza okukhanyayo kuba kuncane. Kodwa kungenxa yalokho lapho ungabona khona i-front front kanye nethagethi. Umbono ongemuva we-diopter sight uhlanganisa indawo yokukhanya futhi ngembobo kusiza ukugxila kuphela kuthagethi nesikhala esincane esisizungezile.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu
I-Diopter sight Veber Dioptric 01 DVT

Izindlela ze-Diopter ziyizikophu ezisebenza kahle kakhulu lapho udinga ukudubula endaweni eqondile lapho kukhona ukukhanya okwanele. Baxhashazwa kuleyo micimbi yezemidlalo lapho izibhamu ezibonakalayo zingasetshenziswa khona.

Amamodeli esimanje alokhu okubonwayo akuvumela ukuthi ulungise ukuma okuqondile nokuvundlile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi zingafakwa kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lwesikhali futhi zidutshulwe ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene. Futhi, kwezinye izinhlobo zokubuka, kungenzeka ukulungisa usayizi wembobo ngokuya ngendawo lapho ukudubula kwenziwa khona.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu
Umbono we-Diopter ANSCHUTZ 7020/20

Amamodeli wokubona we-Diopter

Enye yezinto ezibonakala kahle ngemuva i-Scout folding sight, etholakala kusibhamu sika-Steyr. Lapho idalwa, uchwepheshe wezikhali odumile uJeff Cooper wahlomisa isibhamu ngombono ovulekile, owasiza uma i-optical main iphuka. Umshini womshini uqukethe umbono wangemuva olungisekayo kanye nokubonakala okumnyama okujwayelekile okungaphambili okusesimweni sikanxande. Umbono ongemuva utholakala endaweni yokunqamula yesimo esifiswayo, kodwa ufakwa kalula ukudubula okuhlosiwe ebangeni elifushane.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Ukubuka kwe-Diopter kufakwe kudivayisi yabakhiqizi bezikhali abadumile njengenkampani yaseMarlin.

Isikhathi esithile, i-Rigby diopter yangemuva yayithandwa kakhulu. Wasiza ukudubula okuhlosiwe ebangeni elingamamitha ayi-100 futhi angasuswa ngendlela yokuthi umgodi wakhe ungavalwanga ngamahlamvu noma amagatsha lapho ezingela. I-Rigby sight yakudala ivumela ukubonakala kwangemuva ukuthi kuphakanyiswe ngesondo elincane elifakwe ngemuva kwe-bolt tang. Umbono ongemuva utholakala ukuze ungaphazamisi ukufakwa kwama-optics.

Ukubona okulula ukukusebenzisa kwe-diopter bekukhona nezibhamu ze-American GARAND.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Okubonwayo kwe-Diopter manje akufakwanga kuphela ezimbanjeni, kodwa nakumavolovolo, ikakhulukazi kulawo mamodeli abandakanyeka ekudutshulweni kwezemidlalo futhi adinga ukuqondiswa ngokushesha lapho kuhloswe khona.

Kuyathakazelisa! Ungakhetha kanjani umbono obonakalayo we-carbine: ama-nuances we-optics, ukukala.

Umehluko omkhulu we-diopter sight

I-diopter sight iqinile kakhulu. Ingasetshenziswa kuzo zonke izimo zezulu, futhi isikhali esinaso silula futhi siyalawuleka. Ukuze udubule kahle ngesibhamu nge-diopter, udinga ukwazi umehluko othile kwezinye izitayela zokudubula.

Okokuqala udinga ukusondeza ukubona kwe-diopter eduze kweso futhi ubheke ngembobo. Ukuqonda kanjani ukuthi uhlose ngendlela efanele? I-front sight akufanele ihloswe ekuhlosweni ngokwayo, kodwa ngaphansi kwayo. Lena yindlela ongabona ngayo ngokucacile kokubili okuhlosiwe kanye nempukane. Lapho udubula, udinga ukubheka ngeso elingemuva, hhayi kulo.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

I-diopter sight inika ukucija okuhle kakhulu ngenxa yesakhiwo somgodi. Uma incane, umgomo ubonakala ngokucacile. Izikhali ezinomshini onjalo zinhle kakhulu ekuzingeleni, njengoba kulula kakhulu ukudubula phansi isilwane esihambayo ebangeni elingaphezu kwamamitha ayi-100.

Ukuze uthole ukudubula okunembile, kunconywa ukuthi uthenge umbono ongemuva ngobubanzi obungu-4.8 mm. Izokuvumela ukuthi ufinyelele ilitshe ngisho nasezimeni ezingezinhle zokukhanya.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Amehlo ethu kufanele abe nombono wekhwalithi wangaphambili wekhwalithi, oza ngezinhlobonhlobo nemibala. Iyiphi ekufanele incike entweni kanye nesikhathi sosuku lokudubula kwakho. Uma emini, bese ukhetha impukane emthunzini omnyama kanye nesimo esiyindilinga, okwamanje esivame kakhulu.

Ungaba nombono onjalo cishe kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezibhamu nezibhamu zemishini. I-diopter sight ilungele ukusetshenziselwa ukudubula kude. Ngalesi sizathu, lezi zindlela zikhethwa ngabasubathi abadinga ukushaya ilitshe kude kakhulu nalo.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Abakhiqizi banikezela ngokufaka amadivayisi angeziwe esikhalini ukukusiza ukuthi uhlose ngokunembe kakhudlwana. Ungakwazi ngokuhlukana ukuthenga izinto ezingemuva, izinto zangaphambili, izinto ezibukwayo. Idivayisi ye-diopter ingathengwa esitolo sezibhamu futhi ayidingi imvume. Kubathandi bokuzingela kanye nabaqhudelana nabo abaqeqeshiwe, lokhu kuyindlela enhle.

Kuyathakazelisa! Ububanzi bokubona ebusuku bokuzingela: amamodeli edijithali angcono kakhulu.

Izinzuzo nezingozi ze-diopter sight

Ubuhle nobubi balo bubanzi kuzoxoxwa ngakho ngezansi.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Ukubuka kwe-Diopter kuvame ukusetshenziswa ngabasubathi emiqhudelwaneni yobungcweti. Mhlawumbe umehluko wayo omkhulu kwezinye izinto ezibukwayo ukuthi ayinawo amalensi akhulisa isithombe. Kodwa lapho umdubuli ebheka i-disk yokubona, ubukhulu bayo buseduze nobukhulu beso lomuntu, khona-ke kuba nomuzwa oqinile wokuthi ukudubula kuvela ngesibhamu esinamalensi.

Ububi obukhulu bedivayisi ukuthi ilinganiselwe ekusebenziseni. Ilungele ukuncintisana noma ukuzijwayeza ukudubula. Kwezinye izinhloso, ayifaneleki kakhulu, njengoba ingakuvumeli ukuthi uhlose into enkulu kunomgomo wezemidlalo.

Kodwa kwezemidlalo akanakho okulinganayo, njengoba ekuvumela ukuba uhlose ngokucophelela ukubona, ngoba umbono wangaphambili nombono wangemuva awufaki umbono. Kudingeka kuphela ukubeka isikhali ukuze umbuthano ohlosiwe ube phakathi nendawo yokuvula i-diopter sight.

Futhi, ukungalungi kuhlanganisa ukubuka okulinganiselwe okuzungezile, indawo encane yokukhanya, ukugqagqana kwethagethi, ngaphandle kwephuzu lomthelela.

I-Diopter sight - incazelo, idivayisi, umehluko omkhulu

Izinzuzo zama-diopters:

  • ungakwazi ukugxila ngokunembe kakhulu ezintweni ezikude neziseduze zomlilo;
  • kulula ukusebenza, okuthembekile futhi kuhlala isikhathi eside;
  • intengo ethengekayo;
  • umshini uhlangene futhi unesisindo esincane.

Okubonwayo kwe-Diopter kuyasebenza ekudubuleni kwezemidlalo. Ifanele ukuzingela futhi, kodwa hhayi njalo. Uma zisetshenziselwa ukudubula okuhlosiwe ebangeni elifushane, khona-ke lena inketho engcono kakhulu.

Uthanda kanjani isihloko?

Sergey

Buza umbuzo

Umbono ovulekile uwumklamo olula futhi ovame kakhulu, ojwayelekile kumamodeli amaningi wezikhali ezincane zesimanje.

Uhlobo oluvame kakhulu lwamafutha anjalo utshwala obomile. Empeleni, le nto ayihlangene notshwala, kodwa igama selithathe izimpande. Okuyinhloko

amandla mechanical;

I-diopter sight ihlinzeka ngokunemba okuphezulu kwakho konke okubonwayo kwemishini, kodwa inokudlulisa ukukhanya okuncane kakhulu. Ekukhanyeni okuphansi nakusihlwa, ayisetshenziswa.

Ukuphemba umlilo
Izingubo ezikhethekile ziye zayeka kudala ukuba ingxenye yemishini yezempi yobungcweti. Ngenxa yokuhlanganiswa kwezimfanelo zayo, ibhulukwe eline-tactical libe yingxenye eyintandokazi yekhabethe labahambi, abadobi, abazingeli kanye nezinye izigaba zabantu abazisa induduzo, ukusebenziseka kanye nenkululeko yokuhamba. Ngenxa yokufakwa kabili kwendwangu ezindaweni ezisulwe kakhulu kanye nenani elikhulu lamaphakethe, lawa mabhulukwe angashintsha

I-rear sight disk isebenza njengesithiyo esivimba ngokuphelele ukugeleza kokukhanya lapho kuqondiswe khona, futhi imbobo yokuvula isebenza njenge-diaphragm. Ngayo, isithombe sokuqhathanisa sivezwa kulensi. Kulokhu, umdubuli uphoqeleka ukuthi amise umfundi ngqo emugqeni oqondiwe. Lesi ukuphela kwendawo engenzeka lapho izobonakala khona. Ukuhlosisa kuyaqondakala.

Amabhulukwe ahlakaniphile Impahla yendawo yonke yezempi, abazingeli nabadobi
Izinzuzo zokubuka okuvulekile:

kuthatha isikhathi eside ukuqeqesha amakhono.

Ukubona kwe-Diopter

Idivayisi yokubona evulekile - ukubona ngemuva nangaphambili kumugqa ofanayo. Kuya ngokuhluka, okubonwayo ngaphambili kuyahlukahluka ngomumo nokwakheka, futhi okungemuva kungase kube nebha egxilile noma engashintshi. Ukuze uqondise isikhali endaweni eqondiwe, umdubuli udinga ukuhlanganisa ngokubona indawo engemuva, ingaphambili kanye nethagethi ngokwayo ukuze zibe kulayini ofanayo, ncamashi maphakathi nendawo yokubona.

Zonke izikhali zokuzingela, ngaphandle kokukhetha, zifakwe ukuguqulwa okukodwa noma okunye kokubona kwemishini. Kungaphikiswana ngokuthi isibhamu esivamile siwumbono ongaphambili oyisilinda waseYurophu noma omise okwebhola laseMelika unojantshi noma ongenawo. Kodwa lokhu futhi kungenye yezinketho zombono ovulekile womshini, onembile kakhulu wokudubula isibhamu.

ukunemba okuphezulu;

nbsp I-Survival Kit iwucezu lwesisetshenziswa esibalulekile kumhambi onolwazi, isithandi sokuqwala izintaba okweqisayo noma okuthule, nanoma ubani ohamba uhambo olude noluvamile. Ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu, ukuphuka noma ukulahlekelwa kwamathuluzi, ukwehluleka ekwehleni kanye nezinye i-force majeure kungaphazamisa izinhlelo. Kodwa-ke, ungethuki - kufanele uhlale uqoqwe futhi unegazi elibandayo. Ezikhathini ezinzima, isethi yezinto ezibalulekile zokusinda ezimweni ezimbi kakhulu izosiza.

Okufanayo ekuhambeni.
nbsp nbsp
Indondo Ebukhali Yokudubula Impisi

Amaphutha:

Amabhulukwe angenye yezinto ezithandwa kakhulu ku-wardrobe yawo wonke umuntu wesifazane. Abanye bancamela ukuthenga imikhiqizo eseyakhiwe, kanti abanye bayithunga ukuze bayi-ode. Kodwa kunoma yikuphi, izinto ezisetshenziswa ekuthungeni ibhulukwe zihlala ziyisici esinqumayo.
Idivayisi nomgomo wokusebenza

Ngemva kokulungisa ama-skis ahamba ngezinyawo ezinyaweni zakho, ungakwazi ngokuzethemba, ngaphandle kokucwila ekujuleni kweqhwa, unqobe umzila ohlosiwe noma uphishekele isilo sasendle. Into esemqoka ukunquma

Le ncwadi iwuhlobo lolwazi nobuciko lokuguqulwa kwamasiko abantu, isipiliyoni, izithelo zomcabango, umlando womlando wezenzakalo. idluliselwe ephepheni, esikhumbeni, ensimbi, ngogesi kanye nezinye izinhlobo zokushicilela. Le ncwadi iklanyelwe ukuzuza ulwazi futhi iyindlela ekhethekile yokuzilibazisa.
ukunemba okuhloswe okuphansi, okulinganiselwe amathuba okubona;

 

Ihlobo. Esikhathini esishisayo, wenqaba ukusebenzisa izinto zokwenziwa, njengoba zingasusi umswakama, ungavumeli isikhumba siphefumule. Kodwa ezemvelo zivumela umoya ukuba udlule, ukuvimbela ukushisa ngokweqile komzimba. nbsp
nbsp

Indondo Enembile Shot Hare

Izisetshenziswa ezibizayo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi zinxeshezelwa ngethuba lokuthola ugesi wamahhala. Kubalulekile ukuthi ama-solar panel abe umthombo wamandla ohambisana nemvelo. Eminyakeni yamuva, izintengo zamaphaneli e-photovoltaic ziye zehla izikhathi eziningi futhi ziyaqhubeka nokwehla,

ukubumbana kanye nesisindo esincane;

Incwadi ye-nbsp iyisithelo sempucuko, isiko layo elifakwe emakhasini ombhalo kanye nangaphandle kwemifanekiso, enokuxhumana okujwayelekile kanye nesembozo sokuzivikela. Incwadi inababhali ababhali, izichasiselo, izincomo,

Idivayisi nomgomo wokusebenza

Izinzuzo eziyinhloko:

Namuhla, cishe wonke umuntu angakwazi ukuqoqa futhi athole onawo umthombo wabo ozimele kagesi kumabhethri elanga ezincwadini zesayensi, abizwa ngokuthi amaphaneli e-photovoltaic.
Kunezinhlobo eziningi ezahlukene zokufana kwe-nbsp emhlabeni.

Izinhlobo zikaphethiloli owomile
Vula ukubona

Izinhlobo
Ukusebenza kokudubula akuxhomekile kuphela ekwakhiweni, izici zobuchwepheshe zesikhali noma izinga lokuqeqeshwa komdubuli, kodwa futhi nasekubonweni okusetshenzisiwe. Iyingxenye ebalulekile yesibhamu, ebaluleke kakhulu njengombhobho, isibhamu noma isitokisi.

Abanqobi abanamava bezindawo zasebusika bathi izicathulo zeqhwa zokuzingela, ihlathi noma ukuhamba ezintabeni aziyona into ebaluleke kakhulu kunesikhwama sokulala noma ikhithi yosizo lokuqala. Futhi ukujiya kwesembozo seqhwa ekuqaleni kohambo akusho lutho, asikho isiqinisekiso sokuthi imvula yaminyaka yonke ngeke ine emahoreni ambalwa.
Amamodeli awo wonke amafomu ethulwa emakethe, kodwa ngokomthamo, amatende yi-2, 3, 4-seater, kanye nalabo okuthiwa iqembu noma umndeni lapho inani elikhulu labantu lihlela ukuhlala etendeni elilodwa. Kodwa uma ngokwesibonelo itende lingelabantu abathathu, lokhu akusho ukuthi kunezindawo zabantu abangu-3 kuphela, futhi akekho omunye ongampintsha. imithwalo lapho noma umeme ezinye izivakashi ezimbalwa . Cabanga ukuthi yiliphi itende

Amaphutha:

ubulula, ukwethembeka, amandla emishini;

I-Medal Accurate Shot Goose

Inhloso eyinhloko yento enjalo njengebhande lokuphepha, i-pistol leash noma ijazi lomsele ukukhweza isikhali. Intambo yokuphepha ixhunywe esikhalini ngokusebenzisa i-carbine futhi ivumela umnikazi wesikhali ukuthi agweme ingozi yokulahlekelwa kwayo ngengozi. Intambo yesibhamu iyakwazi ukwelula, ngenxa yalokho ayibangeli ukungahambi kahle lapho igqoke. Intambo evunguzayo iyakwazi ukwelula isuka ku-13.5 cm iye ku-115 cm futhi ibuyele kalula esimweni sayo sokuqala. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, inamandla okwenza

ukwethembeka;

ubulula bomklamo;

Naphezu kwenqubekelaphambili ebalulekile ezindleleni zokwenza i-nbsp fire nbsp phakathi nekhulu leminyaka elidlule kanye nokuba khona emakethe yemishini yokukhempa ehlukahlukene, kusukela kwezilula ezivamile kuya ku-nbsp nbsp imililo kanye nabashisi bamakhemikhali, ukufana kusalokhu kuyithuluzi elithandwa kakhulu. ukubasa imililo ye-nbsp ohambweni lokukhempa, amapikiniki neminye imisebenzi yangaphandle.

Isicelo Naphezu kwawo wonke amaphutha, izindawo ezivulekile zisetshenziswa kaningi kunabanye. Afakwe cishe kuwo wonke amasampula ezempi, isevisi kanye nezikhali ezincane ezivamile, zombili ezihlotshiswe ngezibhamu kanye ne-smoothbore. Lokhu kungenxa yokwethembeka kwawo okungavamile nokuba lula.

ukubumbana kanye nesisindo esincane.

Izinto zokwakha ze

Ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kakhulu kwezikhali, kunesidingo sokuvuselelwa kwazo ngezikhathi ezithile. Ngokunembile, ukushintshwa kwezingxenye, ikakhulukazi uma zenziwe ngepulasitiki. Futhi, ungakhohlwa mayelana nokunakekelwa okufanele kwesikhali, ngenxa yokuthi ungakwazi ukunweba impilo yaso yesevisi. Abadubuli abanolwazi bayazi ukuthi iyini indima yezesekeli ezikhethwe kahle - zenza kube nokwenzeka ukuthuthukisa ukudubula, ukwenza kube mnandi futhi kukhululeke.
Isitholi sebanga i-nbsp iyithuluzi eliklanyelwe ukunquma ibanga ukusuka kusibukeli ukuya entweni. Isetshenziswa ku-geodesy, ngokugxila ezithombeni, ekubonweni kwezikhali, izinhlelo zokuqhunyiswa kwamabhomu kanye ne-nbsp, njll.
ukukhanya njalo
lula ukugcinwa, maintainability;     

Ukubasa umlilo kungenye yezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu umuntu okudingeka azenze uma efuna ukusinda emakhazeni, abaleke izilwane ezidla ezinye ezilambile futhi aziphekele ukudla. Yilapho umthombo onokwethenjelwa uba yinto yokuqala ebalulekile yokusinda ukuze ube nawe ngaso sonke isikhathi.
Isicelo Inkambu eyinhloko yokusetshenziswa kwezindawo ze-diopter ukudubula kwezemidlalo. Emifundeni yezinhlamvu zama-Olympic - amamitha ayi-10 we-pneumatics kanye nesibhamu esincane samamitha angama-50, izinto ezibonwayo ze-diopter ziyasetshenziswa, futhi izinto ezibonwayo azivunyelwe yimithetho.
I-Geodesy nbsp igatsha lemboni elihlobene nezilinganiso eziphansi. Kuyingxenye ebalulekile yomsebenzi wokwakha. Ngosizo lwe-geodesy, amaphrojekthi wezakhiwo nezakhiwo zidluliselwa ephepheni ziye emvelweni ngokunemba kwe-millimeter, izilinganiso zibalwa.

 Ukubona kwe-Diopter

Ukubona kwe-diopter ( ring or aperture ), nakuba kungokwemishini, inembe kakhulu kunesivuliwe. Kulula ukuyisebenzisa ngoba umdubuli udinga umzamo omncane ukuze ahlose, kulula ukuthola indawo efanele yamehlo, umzimba kanye nomgqomo wesikhali.

ukudluliswa kokukhanya okuphansi.

Ijakhethi yamaqhinga ijazi eliklanyelwe isimo sezulu esibandayo sasebusika noma isizini yokuphumula yasentwasahlobo/ekwindla. Ngenxa yentuthuko yezobuchwepheshe esetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni kwayo, leli bhantshi linikeza isivikelo emoyeni, emvuleni naseqhweni, futhi lidala umbuso wokushisa onethezeke kakhulu womzimba. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukuklanywa kwento enjalo kwathuthukiswa kucatshangelwa ukusetshenziswa kwayo ekulweni noma emisebenzini yangaphandle. Ijazi alivimbeli ukunyakaza futhi likuvumela ukuthi ufinyelele ngokushesha izikhali noma imishini.

incredible luminous flux
Indondo Isibhamu Esinembile u-Capercaillie


Umkhawulo wesikhathi we -LED okhanya ngokwedlulele futhi onamandla

Iphrofayela ye-True Shot Bear

Kutuswa ukuthi okungenani ube nezindlela ezintathu zokuqala umlilo kukhithi yokusinda: umentshisi, okolula, kanye nensimbi. Kufanele zithwalwe ezitsheni ezingangeni manzi.

Ithoshi elihlakaniphile - i-nbsp ithoshi elisetshenziswa nezikhali zokukhanyisa okuhlosiwe. Ungakwazi futhi ukuphuphuthekisa isitha okwesikhashana noma udidekise isitha ezimeni ezesabekayo ezihlukahlukene. Amathoshi ahlakaniphile anezici ezihlukahlukene eziwenza akhululeke ukuwasebenzisa futhi aphephe. Imibandela ebaluleke kakhulu
Ngaphezu kwezinto ezibonwayo ezinomzila wesitimela ogudlukayo noma ogoqwayo, ngezinye izikhathi kunezinketho ezinombono wangaphambili olungisekayo. Muva nje, izinto ezibonwa ngaphambili ze-fiber optic ezikhanyiswa nge-LED eluhlaza noma ebomvu bezidumile. Lokhu kwenza umsebenzi womdubuli ube lula kancane lapho kuhwalala, kodwa akwenzi ukubona ngokwakho kunembe kakhudlwana.

ukubona okuvulekile

indawo yokubuka ewumngcingo;

Kanye nezikhali ezisuke kuma-muskets amadala nama-arquebus zaya ezimbanjeni zesimanje, izibhamu ezingontuluntulu namavolovolo, ukubona nakho sekushintshile. Ekuqaleni kwakuwumbono wangaphambili kuphela, ngekhulu le-16 kwavela umbono wangemuva, futhi kamuva kwaba nombono we-annular orthooptic - i-prototype yombono wesimanje wokuvula. Izinto zokubona zaqala ukusetshenziswa kamuva, kuphela ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-19.

Phakathi nanoma yiluphi uhambo ngesikhathi sokuma, kuyadingeka ukunikeza iqembu le-nbsp ngokudla okushisayo. Ensimini, ungenza umlilo, kodwa hhayi yonke indawo ongayenza. Ngakho-ke, ezinye izindlela, noma kunalokho izinhlobo zikaphethiloli, zivame ukusetshenziselwa ukushisa ukudla. Ngokuvamile, izivakashi zikhetha uphethiloli owomile.
izindleko eziphansi;

Idizayini ye-diopter sight iyinhlanganisela yempukane ye-annular noma evamile ye-hemp enengqikithi ekhethekile, okuyi-disk enembobo encane enobubanzi obungu-0.5-1 mm. Le mbobo ngokwesayensi ibizwa ngokuthi i-diopter noma i-aperture.

ububanzi bokushisa bokusebenza obungenamkhawulo.

emabangeni amade, indawo engaphambili ibheka okuhlosiwe;

Indawo elungile yesikhali - ukungabikho kokuvinjelwa - kuhlolwa ngokubuka okungaphambili okume mpo.
Ukubona ngemuva kusebangeni elincane ukusuka esweni ukuze ukwazi ukubona umphumela we-Ghost-ring (Ghost-ring) - isithunzi esiyindilinga esincanyana phambi kweso eliphambili, lapho ingaphambili ligxile khona. Kulolu hlobo lokubona, isithombe esiqondile esihlosiwe sigxile kulokho okuhlosiwe kanye nokungaboni ngaso linye ngaphambili, okugxile eringini. Ngenxa yomqondo wokulinganisa iso, umbono ongaphambili ubekwe phakathi nendawo ebonakalayo ngaphandle komzamo owengeziwe. Ukukhanya okungalingani kwezingxenye zethagethi, kanye nezakhi zengemuva ngemuva kwethagethi ezihluka ngokukhanya nombala, zinomthelela omncane ekuboneni okulungile, njengoba indawo ebonakalayo inkulu kakhulu uma iqhathaniswa nokubona okuvulekile.
I-Diffraction isenzeko sokuchezuka kokukhanya ukusuka ohlangothini lwe-rectilinear lokusakazeka lapho udlula eduze nezithiyo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uma kwenzeka i-diffraction, iphethini eqondiwe noma ingxenye yayo iqala ukufiphala.
Kuvaliwe - zombili izinhlobo
Izinto ezibonwa ngomshini ezikhali ziyizakhi zesakhiwo, inhlanganisela yazo eyakha umugqa wokubuka. Lezi zingaba imigoqo eyisicaba, izimbobo kanye nezimbobo zokubunjwa okuhlukahlukene njengombono wangemuva (ukubona), kanye nezimbobo, izintambo, izinduku, izinaliti, imiphongolo njengombono wangaphambili (umbono wangaphambili).

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Lolu hlobo lokubona ngemuva aluvaliwe, ngakho-ke alunazo izakhiwo zokusika ingxenye yemisebe, ngakho-ke akuthinti ukugqama kwesithombe esibonwayo noma ukujula kwensimu. Ububanzi bembobo yangemuva buthinta usayizi phakathi kodonga oluseceleni lwesikhala kanye nohlangothi lwangaphambili, okuvumela ukuma okunembe kakhudlwana noma ukubanjwa ngokushesha kwempukane esikhaleni. Lapho i-slot iba banzi, kuba lula ukuthola impukane ngokushesha, kodwa kulapho iphutha liphakama khona ekumeni kwayo. Kakade i-slot - kunzima kakhulu ukuthola ngokushesha impukane, kodwa ukubeka endaweni kunembe kakhulu. Ngendlela, umbono ongaphambili we-AK103, ocindezelwe eduze kolunye lwezindonga zombono ongemuva, uholela iqembu ohlangothini ngamasentimitha angu-12-15 ngamamitha angu-50, kanye nombono ongaphambili, ucindezelwe "ngezansi" kwe-slot. , yehlisa iqembu ngamasentimitha angaphezu kuka-50 ebangeni elifanayo. Futhi, i-diffraction iqala ukudlala, okuthi, nge-slot emincane kakhulu, iqale ukuyenza ihlukaniseke kahle, njengoba i-slot ihlangana. Usayizi omncane we-slot, lapho usabonakala ngokucacile, ubizwa ngokuthi i-optimal. Kuncike ezicini eziningi, okuyinhloko kithina izici zomuntu ngamunye zombono womdubuli.
i-parallax

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UGeorgy Gubich owaziwa ngelikaZhora Nefteskvazhinsky

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I-Ghost-ring evaliwe (enobubanzi obukhulu bendandatho - 3-5 mm)
Uma uqhathanisa, i-AK12 yangaphambili, icindezelwe eduze nodonga lwendandatho evamile, ihola iqembu ngendlela ehambisanayo ngamasentimitha angu-6-8 ngamamitha angu-50. , kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ikuphi. Ngiyaqaphela ukuthi ukwandisa ububanzi bomfundi ngenkathi kugcinwa ububanzi bokuvuleka kombono kwandisa ukucindezelwa kwe-parallax nakakhulu. Okusho ukuthi, kumfundi owandisiwe, ungashintsha ukubona nakakhulu, kodwa lokhu ngeke kuholele ekuhoxisweni okwengeziwe kwe-STP. Yilo mphumela osetshenziselwa izibhamu zokudubula i-biathlon kanye nezinhlamvu - "i-pancake" enkulu ifakwe emehlweni angemuva, okunciphisa ukukhanya kweso, ngenxa yokuthi umfundi uyakhula. Ngendlela, mayelana nokucindezelwa kwe-parallax, izinto ezibonwayo ze-diopter zingcono kunezinye izinto ze-collimator ne-holographic.
4. Qalisa ukucubungula ngokulawula ukugcina ukunemba kwesithombe esihlosiwe kanye nokuqondanisa kwaso nephuzu elikuqondiwe ngaphambi kokuthi kudutshulwa.
Muva nje, abantu bebelokhu bephikisana ngezinhlobo zezinto ezibukwayo - okungcono - imbobo noma imbobo, imbobo enkulu noma encane. Futhi phakathi nengxabano, kuyacaca ukuthi abaphikisi bayazi indaba yokuxoxisana kuphela ngenzwabethi, noma, okungcono kakhulu, ngemva kokujwayelana okungavamile. Isifiso sokucacisa nokuqonda kahle udaba kwakuyisizathu sokubhala lo mbhalo.
1. Ukususwa kwezikhali emgqeni wokuphokophela

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ubulula bokuklama kanye nobuchwepheshe bokukhiqiza

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I-master-slave eye switching effect kumadiamitha amancane endandatho namabanga amafushane

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Lolu hlobo lokubona ngemuva luvaliwe, ngakho-ke lunezici zokunqamula ingxenye yemisebe yokukhanya okudlulisiwe, okusho ukuthi kuthinta ukugqama kwesithombe esibonwayo. Ngakho, imbobo encane yobubanzi ayikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwalolu hlobo lokubona kusihlwa nasebusuku. Isikhala esingemuva sokuvula sithinta isivinini nokunemba. Isikhala esikhulu sokuvula - ukwakheka kwesithombe esiqondiwe ngokushesha, kodwa ukunemba okuphansi. Ububanzi obuncane - ukwakheka kancane kwesithombe esibonayo, kodwa ukunemba kuphezulu. Ngenxa yomphumela wokucindezelwa kwe-parallax kulolu hlobo lokubona, iphutha uma kuhloswe alinakwa. Kusho ukuthini lokhu ngokwenza? Uma nje ububanzi be-diaphragm buncane kunobubanzi bomfundi, ngisho nendawo engaphelele yombono wangaphambili phakathi nendandatho cishe ayiholeli ku-STP - umphumela we-parallax ucishe ucindezelwe ngokuphelele.
Ngakho-ke, njengesisekelo, ngathatha izinto ezibekwe ezikhalini zempi kanye nokuphuma kwazo, angicabangi ngokuqaphela amamodeli okuzingela.
Umbono ovulekile uwumbono wangemuva onesikhala esingunxande / isikwele / esimise u-U, njll. (isibonelo, umbono wangemuva we-AK wakudala).
Ububi obuncane balolu hlobo lokubona ukuthi ngaphezu kwendawo engaphambili kunengxenye yeringi yangemuva evala amehlo. Kodwa, uma kubhekwa ubukhulu bendawo ebonakalayo eringini, le nkinga ikude kakhulu. Kodwa kunenzuzo, ngokungafani nendawo evulekile - kunesikhala esibonakalayo esingezansi phezulu kwamehlo angaphambili.

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Ukujula kwenkambu noma Ukujula Kwenkambu (i-DOF) ibanga elihambisana ne-eksisi yokubona emkhathini lapho izinto zikhonjiswa khona ngokucijile. Ukujula okwengeziwe kwensimu - indawo eyengeziwe igxile, okungukuthi, ibonakala kakhulu kithi. Ungakwazi ukwandisa ukujula kwenkundla ngokuvula (ukunciphisa ububanzi bokuvuleka) kwesistimu ye-optical, lokhu kuzocindezela umphumela wokuphambuka futhi kwenze izinto zibe bukhali. Isibonelo esilula. Yelula isandla sakho phambi kwakho welule umunwe wakho - lokhu kuzoba cishe uhhafu wemitha ukusuka esweni. Gxila emunweni wakho. Konke okungaphezu kwayo - imitha elilodwa ukusuka esweni nangale kwalokho, kuzoba lufifi. Kodwa uma ubheka umunwe wakho ngembobo engu-2mm (isibonelo, indawo yokuvula iringi), izinto ezingemuva kwawo ziba bukhali kakhulu. Lo mphumela usebenza lapho ububanzi be-diaphragm buncane kunobubanzi bomfundi.
Ukubona okuvaliwe
akukho mphumela wokushintsha iso eliyisigqila se-master-slave
Imbobo ye-diaphragm iyisithiyo noma ifreyimu yeyodwa yamalensi ebeka umkhawulo emisebe yemisebe evela emaphoyintini ento etholakala eksisini yokubona futhi edlula ohlelweni lwe-optical. Esimweni sethu, lolu luhlaka noma into enembobo, okuwumbono ongemuva ovaliwe.

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I-Aberration - iphutha ohlelweni lwe-optical, ukwephulwa kokugxila kwemishayo yokukhanya ezindaweni eziyindilinga zamalensi, okubangelwa amazinga ahlukene okuphikisa. Esimweni sethu, ukufiphala kwezinto ezibonwayo, ikakhulukazi lezo ezingagxilile. Uma kuncipha kancane, isithombe siyacaca.
Izinhlobo zezinto ezibukwayo nezici zazo
Okunye okungalungile kwalolu hlobo lokubona ukuthi kunzima ukuyisebenzisa ezindaweni ezikhanyisiwe ezinombono wangaphambili wokuqina okujwayelekile, iqala ukulahleka ngenxa yokukhanya - uma lolu hlobo lokubona lulukhulu. eyodwa, kufanelekile ukuzama ukubeka umbono wangaphambili oshubile.
Lolu hlobo lokubona ngemuva luvaliwe, kodwa ngenxa yobukhulu bomgodi akuthinti ukukhanya kwesithombe esibonakalayo phakathi namahora asemini - i-pupil yeso izoba mncane kakhulu kunobubanzi bokuvula. Kodwa, lokhu futhi kunciphisa umphumela wokucindezelwa kwe-parallax - futhi amaphutha azoba mkhulu, futhi akukho mphumela wokwandisa ukujula kwensimu. Ukuze uqhathanise, umbono ongaphambili ocindezelwe eduze kodonga lwendandatho enobubanzi obungu-4.5 mm uhola iqembu ngendlela ehambisanayo ngamasentimitha angama-20 ngamamitha angama-50, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ikuphi. Ngakho-ke, kuba yinkinga kakhulu ukuqhuba umlilo onembile oqinisekisiwe endaweni eqondiwe engusayizi wethagethi engu-4 ngaphezu kwamamitha ayi-100. Kodwa ubukhulu bomgodi buvumela ukusetshenziswa kwalolu hlobo lokubona lapho kuhwalala ngisho nasebusuku obukhanyiswa yinyanga, futhi kusezimweni ezinjalo lapho umbukwane weso ukhula ube ngamanani angama-8 mm, okusho ukuthi iba nkulu kunobubanzi bokuvula - futhi ukujula kwensimu kuyanda futhi futhi i-parallax iyacindezelwa. Kunjalo, inqobo nje uma okuqondiwe kubonakala.
Izinzuzo zokusebenza ngalolu hlobo lokubona zihlanganisa isivinini sokwenza isithombe esihlosiwe, isivinini sokudlulisa kanye nokuba lula kokusebenza ekuqondisweni okuhambayo. Uma kubhekwa ukusebenza kwebanga elifushane, asikho isidingo sokugxila noma usondele endaweni engaphambili - ungakwazi ukulawula ngokugcwele futhi ugcine okuqondiwe kugxilile.
I-Diopter sight - umbono wangemuva onembobo eyindilinga, eyisikwele noma emise okwedayimane (umbono we-M4 noma i-AK12).
Ukukubeka kalula, ekuboneni kwendandatho encane yobubanzi, asikho isidingo sokugxila endaweni ekahle yokubuka phambili kwendandatho. Kungcono ukuchitha lesi sikhathi endaweni eqondile yangaphambili ekuhlosweni.
Kunengqondo ukuthi izinga eliphezulu lekhono lokuhlosa livumela ukunciphisa umehluko ngesikhathi phakathi kokwakhiwa kwesithombe esihlosiwe kanye nokusesha okuhlosiwe, kanye nokudluliswa komlilo. Kodwa ikhono alikwazi ukunxephezela ukwanda kokujula kwenkundla, njengoba nje lingeke likuvumele ukuthi ubone umbono ongaphambili endaweni evulekile yangemuva ekuhwebeni okujulile.
Ngokwesibonelo. Ngobubanzi be-diaphragm obungu-2.0 mm, kucatshangelwa ukude kwami ​​nombono ofanele, ngibona inhloso ebangeni elingamamitha angama-200, ngibona kahle isikhala ku-+ -100 amamitha ngokujula komugqa wokuphokophela. Ngalolu hlobo lokubona, kulula ukuchezuka ezimisweni eziyisisekelo zokukhomba umlilo wenhlamvu uma ukudubula kungenziwanga ngaphansi kwezimo ezifanele zokudubula. Ngigxila kude kancane kunombono ongaphambili, cishe amamitha angu-0.5-1.5. Nesikhala esibonakala emehlweni sikhulise ukucija. Ngokusika ingxenye yemishayo, ukungaboni ngaso linye esweni kuyacindezelwa, futhi isithombe esibonwa emehlweni siba bukhali kunangaphandle kokubona. Le khwalithi ibaluleke kakhulu uma kudingeka ukulawula okuhlosiwe okuningana, noma ukusebenza ngezinto ezihlosiwe ezingaqhathanisi. Ukwanda kokujula kwensimu kunciphisa inani lendawo yokuhlala, okunciphisa amathayi emisipha yamehlo.
khulisa ukujula kwenkambu
Vula
Inzuzo yalolu hlobo lokubona ukuthi azikho izinto ezingaphezulu kwendawo engaphambili ezivimbela ukubuka. Kodwa futhi kukhona ukuhlehla - umbono ongemuva oneso langaphambili ufihla yonke into engaphansi kwethagethi engaphansi kwezinga eliphezulu le-front sight. Lapho udlulisa isikhali ukusuka kwelitshe kuya kwelitshe, umbono uyafana kuwo womabili amehlo, esimweni sokudluliselwa ohlangothini lweso eliqhutshwayo, okuhlosiwe okusha kuqala kungena emkhakheni wayo wokubuka.
Ukunemba kokuma kwesikhali - ukungabikho kokuvinjwa - kuhlolwa ngokuma kokubuka okungaphambili, kodwa emabangeni amafushane lokhu akunawo umthelela obalulekile ekunembeni.
Imiphumela yokudubula incike ekukhetheni okulungile kohlobo kanye nokucushwa okulungile kwemishini yokubona.
Kunemibono eyiphutha yokuthi ukubona indandatho kujwayele ukwehluleka ngenxa yokungcola/iqhwa/ukungena kwamanzi. Idizayini ekhethwe kahle yeringi kanye nobubanzi bembobo kunethuba elifanayo lokuvaleka njengesikhala sombono ongemuva ovulekile. Futhi lapha kukhona ezimbili ongakhetha. Noma lokhu kuvinjelwa kulula ngokwanele ukukususa ngokufutha ukubona / ukunyakazisa isikhali. Noma ukuvaleka okufanayo kwenzeka ngokubona okungaphambili ku-rim eyisivikelo, okunzima kakhulu ukuyihlanza ngaphandle kwezindlela ezithuthukisiwe kunanoma yikuphi ukubona kwangemuva.
Futhi elinye iphutha elivamile labaqalayo umzamo wokungahlosi ngempukane, kodwa "ngezimpondo" zokuzivikela, i.e. umdubuli uqala ukuqondanisa indandatho noma "izimfoloko" zonogada bangaphambili eringini yangemuva - lena inqubo engalungile. Le ndlela ingasetshenziswa kuma-ghost-ring scopes nalapho kudutshulwa ezindaweni ezisondelene kakhulu. Ukuzijwayeza kulula kakhulu - udinga ukukhumbula ukuthi ukuvikelwa kwamehlo angaphambili kuwukuvikela nje kwangaphambili, hhayi ingxenye yesistimu yokuhlonza.

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ukucindezelwa kwe-parallax

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Umbono ongemuva usebangeni elincane ukusuka esweni ukuze ububanzi besikhala esibonwa ngembobo bube bukhulu, futhi amandla angokwemvelo wesistimu ye-optical enjalo ayabonakala - ukwandisa ukujula kwensimu. Kulolu hlobo lokubona, umugqa wokubona olungile uwukuhambisana kwendiza engenhla yendawo engaphambili nendawo ephakathi kwendandatho yangemuva, nendawo yokubuka phambili kwendandatho ukuze kube nezikhala phakathi kokubuka okungaphambili nendandatho. izindonga zendandatho ziyafana. Ngenxa yomqondo onembile wokulinganisa iso, umbono wangaphambili ubekwe phakathi nendawo ebonakalayo ngaphandle komzamo owengeziwe. Ukukhanya okuhlukile kwezingxenye eziqondiwe, ukukhanya okuhlukile nemibala yangemuva kunomphumela omncane ekuboneni okulungile kwesithombe esihlosiwe, njengoba indawo ebonakalayo inkulu kakhulu uma iqhathaniswa nokubona okuvulekile.
Ngesikhathi esifanayo, kuyadingeka ukuqonda kahle ukuthi ukwanda kobude bomugqa wokukhomba, okwenzeka lapho usebenzisa umbono ovaliwe, onesimo esiqhubekayo sokubuka phambili, kuyisimo esidingekayo sokwandisa ukujula kwensimu. Lapho umugqa wokuphokophela uba mfishane, kuyancipha ukujula kwenkambu. Lapho indandatho yokubona ikude kakhulu ukusuka esweni, ukujula kwensimu kuyancipha. Ibanga elifanele lingu-4-8 cm - iphutha elivamile ukubeka indandatho yokubona ngemuva kude neso. Lokhu, ngendlela, kungenye yezizathu ezenza ngihlale ngikhetha ukudubula ngobude obufushane kakhulu besitoko okungenzeka ngesimo.
Vula ukubona
isidingo sokuphinda ugxilise ingqondo kusukela ekubonweni okuphambili kuya kokuqondiwe ukuze ulawule ukushaya I-
annular evaliwe (enobubanzi bendandatho encane - ngaphansi kuka-3 mm)
I-irradiation ekhanyayo - ukwanda okubonakalayo kobukhulu bezibalo ezikhanyayo kungemuva elimnyama. Lokhu kusho ukuthi isibalo esikhanyayo esingemuva esimnyama sibonakala simnyama kakhulu, sinosayizi wangempela ofanayo. Lo mphumela ubonakala ikakhulukazi uma kukhona ingemuva elikhanyayo ohlangothini olulodwa lwangaphambili kanye nethagethi, kanye nengemuva elimnyama kolunye.

ukufakwa eduze neso akwenzeki kuso sonke isikhali
Ukuze ngingabhekiseli unomphela kumatemu nezincazelo ngokuqhubekayo embhalweni, ngizozibhala kusengaphambili futhi ngizichaze.
I-Parallax iwushintsho endaweni ebonakalayo yento ehlobene nengemuva elikude, kuye ngendawo yombukeli. Kithina, lokhu kuzozwakala njengethonya lesimo sombono ongaphambili ekuboneni ngokunemba kokushaya. Uma i-parallax iphezulu, amahithi azoshintsha kakhulu ngokuhamba kancane kokubuka okungaphambili ngemuva.
Sibonga ngokukhethekile ku-D*** kanye no-R***** ngokuhlela

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Akukho nokukodwa okulungile kokubona ngomshini. Zonke zinezinzuzo kanye nokubi. Kodwa singasho nakanjani ukuthi ububanzi obungcono kakhulu yilowo owaziyo ukuthi usetshenziswa kanjani.
Izinhlobo ezimbili eziyinhloko zokubonwa kwezingalo ezincane ezinemigqomo emide ezibanjwa ngesandla zivuliwe futhi zivaliwe (imbobo noma indandatho).
Ngokusho kwe-GOST 28653-2018, kufanele zibizwe ngokuthi zivulekile ne-diopter, ngokulandelana.

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ikhono lokubona imininingwane emincane (ukuhlola kabusha) esithombeni esibonayo ngokwandisa ubukhali nokujula kwenkambu
Njengoba umbono ongemuva uqhelelene neso, ikakhulukazi uma ukulungiswa kwezinhlangothi kwethulwa ngokunyakazisa ingemuva, kungase kuthathe isikhathi ngemva kwesinyathelo 1 ukuthola indawo elungile yekhanda ukuze uthole umbono ongaphambili ungene endaweni yokubuka (isinyathelo 2). ). Ngemva kwalokho, isikhali siqondiswe kulokho okuhlosiwe ngokuqondanisa isithombe esihlosiwe nendawo edingekayo yokukhomba endaweni ehlosiwe (isiteji sesi-3). Kulesi sigaba, ukuphokophela okulungile kuthonywa kakhulu ukukhanya nokukhanya kwezinhlangothi zombono wangaphambili kanye nonqenqema olungaphezulu lombono ongemuva nowangaphambili, kanye nengemuva, ukufana kwawo kanye nokugqama kwethagethi ngokumelene nesizinda. ingemuva - ukukhanya okukhanyayo kusebenza ngokumelene nathi. Phakathi nesigaba sesi-4, kubalulekile ukulawula njalo hhayi kuphela indawo yombono wangaphambili ekuhlosweni, kodwa futhi nokuma kombono wangaphambili endaweni yokubuka yangemuva. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma kudingekile ukulawula ukushaya kwesiteji sesi-5, kubalulekile ukugudluzela ukugxila kulokho okuhlosiwe,
ubunkimbinkimbi bokuklama kanye nobuchwepheshe bokukhiqiza

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Vula
2. Ukuqondanisa umugqa wokukhomba ne-eksisi yokubuka yeso
Imigomo nezincazelo
zesidingo sokugcizelela njalo ekulawuleni ukubona okungaphambili ngemuva
Njengoba umbono ongemuva useduze kakhulu neso, esiteji 1 iso, ngekhono elifanele, ngokushesha lithola imbobo yangemuva. Futhi phakathi nesigaba sesibili, ubuye abeke intuitively impukane maphakathi nendandatho. Ngasikhathi sinye, akunangqondo ukulawula indawo yayo ukuze izimise kahle endandeni, uma singakhulumi ngokudubula kwe-sniper. Ngesikhathi sesiteji sesi-3, kugcizelelwa ukuhlosisa indawo yangaphambili lapho kuhloswe khona, asikho isidingo sokulawula ngokungeziwe indawo yangemuva. Phakathi nesiteji sesi-4, konke ukulawula kuphezu kwendawo yokubuka ngaphambili endaweni elungile lapho kuqondiwe khona, hhayi indawo yangemuva nethagethi. Uma ngemuva kwesiteji sesi-4 kuba nesidingo sokulawula ukushaya (isigaba sesi-5), khona-ke okuhlosiwe, njengomthetho, kusendaweni yokugxila ngenxa yokwanda kokujula kwensimu - futhi asikho isidingo sendawo yokuhlala eyengeziwe.
Indawo efanele yesikhali - ukungabikho kokuvinjwa - ihlolwa ngokuzimele ngomkhathizwe wobuso obungaphezulu bombono ongemuva. 
Inqubo yokudubula
I-nuance elandelayo yokusebenza nalolu hlobo lokubona, oluvela ezintweni ezingavamile noma, kunalokho, ukushiyeka kwesakhiwo sesistimu ye-optical yeso lomuntu, ukungakwazi ukuqaphela ngesikhathi esisodwa izinto ezikude. Ngesikhathi esifanayo sibona ngokucacile okungemuva, noma okuphambili, noma okuqondiwe. Ake ngikukhumbuze ukuthi ekudutshulweni kwamachashazi okudala, kugxilwa ekubonweni okungaphambili, futhi ukubona kwangemuva nethagethi kufiphele. Konke kucacile ngakho konke, kodwa yini okufanele uyenze ngethagethi uma lezi kungezona izimo ezikahle zokudubula, lapho ukukhanya kufana, okuhlosiwe kumile futhi kuphambene? Kungazelelwe ihlangana nengemuva, inyakaze, noma ingakhanyi ngokulinganayo? Lapha kufanele ulokhu ushintsha ukugxilisa ingqondo (ukwamukela) usuke endaweni engaphambili uye lapho uqondiswe khona, noma udele nobukhali bokubona ngaphambili.
Umbono ongemuva uqhelelene neso ukuze ukwakheka kwe-slot kanye nonqenqema olungaphezulu kucace ngangokunokwenzeka, inqobo nje uma ukugxila AKUKHO ekubonweni kwangemuva. Kulolu hlobo lokubona, umugqa wokubona olungile uwukuhambisana kwendiza ephezulu yangaphambili nendiza yangemuva, nendawo yokubuka yangaphambili ku-slot ukuze kube nezikhala phakathi kokubuka okungaphambili nezinhlangothi. we slot ziyafana. Kuleli qophelo, esinye sezitha ezimbi kakhulu zokuhlosa ngendlela efanele ukukhanya kokukhanya. Ukukhanya okungalingani kwezingxenye zethagethi, kanye nama-elementi angemuva ahluka ngokukhanya nombala ngemuva kwethagethi, kuthinta kabi umbono olungile wezikhala ezinhlangothini zokubuka okungaphambili.
ikhono lokufaka cishe kunoma yisiphi isikhali phakathi nendawo yesakhiwo
5. Ukulawula ukushaya / ukuqondisa ukuqondanisa kwesithombe sokudubula kwesibili / ukudluliswa kwezikhali ngokusesha okuhlosiwe.
Ukugxila kwesistimu yokubona indawo lapho imishayo ehambisanayo ihlangana khona (“ukugxila”) ngemva kokudlula ohlelweni lokuqoqa. Esimweni sethu, uma sibona into ebukhali, khona-ke kuba kude lapho iso lethu ligxile khona, noma "into igxile" .
Indawo yokuhlala - ikhono leso lokushintsha ubude bokugxila ngenxa yokufinyela kwemisipha nokuphumula. Okusho ukuthi, ikhono lokudlulisa ukugxila ezintweni ezitholakala ebangeni elihlukile.
 cishe ukungabikho okuphelele komkhuba wokukhanya kwemisebe
Imbobo yinani elibonisa ukudluliswa kokukhanya kwesistimu yokubona. Ngokomongo wethu, isithombe simnyama kangakanani uma sibhekwa kububanzi nangaphandle kwaso. Imbobo ephansi iholela ekubeni mnyama kwenkundla yokubuka emehlweni. Isebenza ezindaweni ezivaliwe kuphela.
ukwenzeka kwe-light irradiation

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Uma senza lula inqubo yokukhiqiza isibhamu esihlosiwe ngosizo lwemishini yokukhomba ngangokunokwenzeka, khona-ke ingachazwa ngezinyathelo ezilandelayo:
akukho mphumela ekukhanyeni kwesithombe esihlosiwe
Okulandelayo izinzuzo zokusebenza nalolu hlobo. ukubona, okuvela ezicini zezinhlelo ze-optical. Lapho i-diaphragming (okungukuthi, ukunciphisa ububanzi bendandatho), ukujula kwensimu kuyanda, okusho ukuthi kuba nokwenzeka ngasikhathi sinye ukubheka izinto ngokucijile ezindaweni ezikude. 
Izinto ezibonwa ngomshini
Ngizozama ukusho izinzuzo nezinkinga zalezi zinhlobo zokubuka, ngokusekelwe kokuhlangenwe nakho kwami ​​​​komuntu siqu futhi, ngokwengxenye, izinto ezihlanganisiwe ezivela kunethiwekhi, nazo zadlula kwisihlungi sokuhlangenwe nakho kwami. Okuhlangenwe nakho okwamanje kucishe kufane - ngaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezingama-60 isibhamu esivela ezikhalini ezinombono ovulekile futhi ezingaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezingama-85 ezivaliwe.
Enye yezingqinamba eziyinhloko kanye nogibe lwabadubuli abangenalwazi ukuthi ezindaweni ezinobubanzi obuncane bokuvula, lapho isikhali sidluliswa ngokushesha sisuka ekuhlosweni siye kuso lapho siqondiswe khona ebangeni eliseduze, ukubuka kwamehlo aholayo naqhutshwayo kuhlukile. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ubuchopho ngokungazi buqala ukushintsha iziteshi ezibukwayo lapho buthola khona ukwaziswa. Futhi iso eliholayo liba eliqhutshwayo, okuholela ekuhlolweni okungalungile kwesithombe esihlosiwe kanye nokuhloswe okungalungile kwesikhali. Kodwa ngiyaphinda, lo mphumela ujwayelekile kuphela kububanzi obuncane be-diaphragm - 2.2 mm noma ngaphansi, ezimweni zokudluliswa kwesivinini esiphezulu ebangeni eliseduze kuze kufike kumamitha angu-50, kuphela okuhlosiwe okuncane, nokuntuleka kwekhono elifanele.

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Isiphetho
3. Ukuqondanisa kwesithombe esihlosiwe nendawo edingekayo yokukhomba (TP)
asikho isidingo sokuqondanisa okuphelele kwendawo yangaphambili eyindandatho engemuva
. Eyesithathu i-diffraction, ethi, enobubanzi bendandatho encane kakhulu, iqale “ fiphaza” isithombe. I-periphery "ifiphele" ikakhulukazi ngenxa yesimo sokungalungi. Usayizi we-diaphragm, lapho i-diffraction ingakacaci kangako, ibizwa ngokuthi i-optimal. Kuncike ezicini eziningi, okuyinhloko kithina izici zomuntu ngamunye zombono womdubuli.
Isici esilandelayo ukuvuleka. Iringi elincane, isithombe siba mnyama. Umehluko ekugqameni kwesithombe ngokubona nangaphandle kwawo awubonakali uma ububanzi bomfundi bulingana noma bungaphansi kobubanzi bembobo yokubona.

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ithonya ekukhanyeni kwesithombe esihlosiwe - indawo encane yokungena endaweni encane yokuvula
Manje ake sidlule ezinhlotsheni zokubuka ngencazelo yenqubo yokusebenza nazo kulokhu kulandelana kwezenzo.


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