Izici ukhukhamba ezikhulayo

Kungcono kakhulu ukufaka i-trellis ngosizo lwekholomu, kodwa uma kungenakwenzeka ukwenza inqubo ngemishini, ungafaka i-trellis ngesandla, usebenzisa i-drill ngesandla.

Igqame kakhulu esimweni sezulu esimanzi. Izitshalo ezithintekile zisala ngemuva ekukhuleni, amabala aphuzi akheka emaqabunga, aphenduka abe nsundu ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. I-brownish-grey sporulation ibonakala ngaphansi kweqabunga.

UKUNAKEKELA IZIBALO Ngokuvela kweqabunga lokuqala langempela ezitshalweni, uma kunesidingo, ukuphumelela kwezithombo kuyadingeka. Ibanga phakathi kwezitshalo ngokulandelana kufanele libe ngamasentimitha angama-25-30. Ngesikhathi esifanayo nokuqhakaza kwezitshalo ngokweqile, ukhula emigqeni nalo luyasuswa. Ngemuva kokukhipha ukhula, ukuhlukaniswa kwemigqa kuphathwa ngomlimi we-KRN-4.2. Ngesikhathi sokutshala kokuqala, kungenzeka ukukhulula kokubili ama-aisles amancane nabanzi, futhi ngesikhathi sokutshala okulandelayo, okubanzi kuphela. Ukujula kokutshalwa kokuqala kungu-3-4 cm, futhi okulandelayo - cm 6-8. Ngenxa yokwanda kokuzwela kwamakhukhamba emoyeni, kufanele abekwe, ikakhulukazi uma esekhulile ku-trellis, endaweni evikelekile. umoya. Njengokuvikela emoyeni, ungasebenzisa izitshalo ze-rocker zommbila namabele. Imigqa yezitshalo ezivikela umoya ibekwa njalo nge-10-12m, ishiya imigqa ukuze kutshalwe ukhukhamba.

Topsin M, s.p. - 0.8-1.0 kg/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-15.

Ukunisela okulandelayo kufanele kuqale ngesigaba samaqabunga eqiniso angama-3-4 ukuze kwakheke uhlelo lwezimpande oluqinile futhi olujulile. Ngesikhathi sokwakhiwa kwemivimbo, izinga lokunisela akufanele libe phezulu kakhulu, mayelana ne-25-30 cubic metres / ha. Njengoba i-vegetative mass ikhula, izinga lokunisela liyakhula kancane kancane. Inani eliphakeme lokunisela liwela esikhathini sokuqhakaza kwezimbali nokuthela izithelo. Ngalesi sikhathi, izinga lokunisela, kucatshangelwa i-coefficient yokuhwamuka, kufanele libe ngaphakathi kwama-cubic metres angama-60-70 / ha. Ukuchelela nge-Drip kuvumela hhayi nje ukonga amanzi, kodwa futhi ukwethula inani elilinganayo le-nitrogen, i-phosphorus ne-potassium, nezinye izakhi, kucatshangelwa izigaba zokukhula kwezitshalo.

Esimeni sezulu esimanzi nesifudumele, izimpawu zesifo zingase zibonakale njengamachashaza ansundu ngokukhanyayo emaphethelweni amaqabunga. Emaqabungeni angempela, amabala anamafutha, bese ansundu akhiwa phakathi kwemithambo. Ngaphansi kweqabunga, amaconsi oketshezi oluphuzi olunamafu angavela, lapho kukhona inani elikhulu lamagciwane. Izicubu ezingaphakathi kwamathonsi zoma futhi ziwohloke.

IZINHLOKO.

Lapho uqhuba isiko esiqwini esisodwa, kuma-node okuqala angama-3-4, izithelo nezinyathelo zokutholwa zisuswa ngokuphelele, zishiya isiqu esisodwa namaqabunga, kuma-node angama-2-3 alandelayo, ama-stepons ancishwa endaweni yokuqala. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izingane zokutholwa zifushaniswa ngaphezu kwefindo le-3-5, kuye ngokuthi ukuqina. Ngemva kokuba isiqu esiphakathi sifinyelele phezulu kwe-trellis, siqondiswa ngaphakathi komugqa. Kumele ngisho ukuthi lokhu kwakheka kunconywa kuphela. Ukwakheka kungase kwehluke - okuholela esiqwini esisodwa ngokumpintsha okujwayelekile phezu kwenodi yesi-3-4. Kungenzeka futhi ukwakha isiqu esisodwa, ngokumpintsha okuvamile. Imisebenzi yokunyathela kufanele yenziwe ngokucophelela kakhulu ukuze isitshalo singahlukunyezwa (amanxeba) okwenziwa ngabasebenzi, ngoba izilonda ziyisango lokutheleleka.

Izibulala-sikhunta ezithintana nezihleliwe kufanele kushintshwe, futhi amalungiselelo anezithako ezihlukahlukene ezisebenzayo kufanele ashintshwe ukuze kugwenywe ukumelana.

UKUVIKELA EZWENI KANYE NEZIFO. INCAZELO EMFUSHANE YEZILWANE NEZIFO KANYE NEZINKHALI ZOKULAWULWA KWAZO.

Izinhlelo zokutshala zincike ezinhlobonhlobo noma i-hybrid yekhukhamba kanye nezindlela zokusebenzisa imishini. Izitshalo zingakhiwa esiqwini esisodwa (isitshalo sitholakala ngaphambi kwesikhathi) noma ngeziqu ezimbili (isitshalo kamuva ngenxa yomthwalo omkhulu ohlelweni lwezimpande).

Izinyathelo zokulawula: bheka uhlelo lokulawula izintwala.

Ezifundeni eziseningizimu avele ngoMeyi. Ukulimaza phakathi nenkathi yokukhula. Amabala amhlophe avela emaqabunga, okuthi, lapho alimele kakhulu, ahlangane, ngenxa yalokho amaqabunga omile. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, izitshalo zinciphisa kakhulu ukukhiqiza kwazo.

Lesi sifo sithinta amaqabunga, iziqu, izithelo. Izimpawu zalesi sifo emaqabunga zivela njengamachashaza ayindilinga aphuzi noma ansundu ububanzi obuyi-2-3 cm. Kamuva, amabala amhlophe amboza amabala, ngokuvamile eduze nemithambo, kamuva amaqabunga aphenduka ansundu futhi ome, abe sengathi ashisiwe. Amabala on the izithelo bacindezelekile, efana izilonda, kamuva blackening. Izithelo ezithintekile ziyashwabana, zibe mnyama, zibole, azidleki. Engxenyeni eyisisekelo yeziqu, izitshalo zivame ukufa.

Ukulwa nemikhaza kwenziwa ngama-acaricides:

IZIFO ZIKAKHUKHUMBA.
Confidor - 0.3-0.4 l / ha (ngokwezincomo ze-Bayer). - Isikhathi sokulinda sezinsuku ezingama-20.

I-Talstar 10% a.e. - 0.72 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.

Nunhems: (Sparta F1, Hector F1, Ajax F1) p.o. (Crispina F1, Delpina F1, Dolomit F1, Aphina F1, Angelina F1) p.c. Bejo: ( Atlantis F1) p.o. (Amour F1, Angel F1) b.c. I-Singenta: (Ophix F1, Octopus F1) p.o. (Pasamonte F1, Pasadena F1) p.k. Rijk Zwaan: (Opera F1) v.o. (Vocal F1, Melody F1, Concerto F1, Presto F1, Componist F1) p.k. Semenis: (Natasha F1, Levina F1) p.o. (Masha F1, Beanca F1, Matilda F1) b.c. Nasko: (Zubrenok, Crane, Bheka) p.o.

Uhlelo lokunisela ngamaconsi lukuvumela ukuthi wonge imikhiqizo yokuvikela izitshalo ngangokunokwenzeka. Inani lezinambuzane zomhlabathi liyancishiswa uma imbewu iphathwa nge-fentiuram.

I-aphid.

I-Bayleton 2 5% w.p. - 0.12 kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-20.
I-Karate 050 EC, k.u. -0.1l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.

Izinambuzane ezisaqanda, ezimpunga-oluhlaza noma osawolintshi-obomvu. Imikhaza ihlala ngaphansi kweqabunga bese imunca ijusi. Ngesikhathi sokukhula, i-spider mite ezimweni zase-Ukraine inika izizukulwane eziyi-12. Ehlobo elomile, izitshalo ezilinyazwe kakhulu izibungu ziyafa. Amaqabunga awonakele kancane kancane aphenduka abe nsundu futhi ome.

- ukonga isikhala;
IZILWANE.

Izinyathelo zokulawula: kusetshenziswa amalungiselelo aqukethe ithusi - i-oxychloride yethusi - 2.4 kg / ha, - izinsuku ezingama-20.

I-Actellik 50% a.e. - 1 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.
ISIKO LEKHUKHUMBA EMHLABENI.Isiko lekhukhamba ku-trellis lingenziwa ngokuhlwanyela imbewu kanye nokutshala izithombo. Ukuthola imikhiqizo yesikhathi sokuvuthwa kwangaphambili, kuyadingeka ukusebenzisa indlela yokutshala ngokusetshenziswa okuphoqelekile kwendawo yokukhosela yefilimu. Isikhathi esifanele sokutshala yizinsuku ezingama-20-25 (amaqabunga amathathu eqiniso). Ezindaweni zethu, isikhathi sokutshala izithombo siwela ekupheleni kuka-Ephreli - ekuqaleni kukaMeyi. Ngaphandle kwendawo yokukhosela yefilimu, kuyadingeka ukutshala izithombo ngaphambi kukaMeyi 5 ukuze ugweme ukulimala ngenxa yesithwathwa sasentwasahlobo. Ngaphambi nangemva kokutshala izitshalo endaweni evulekile, ukuchelela kuyimpoqo ukuze kwandiswe izinga lokusinda kwezithombo kanye nokunciphisa inani lokuhlaselwa libe lincane.

I-Kurzat R s.p. - 3 kg/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-9.
I-Previkur 607SL w.r. - 2 l/ha, - izinsuku ezingama-20.
Ukufafaza.

Lapho kuvela izimo ezivumayo zokuthuthukiswa kwalesi sifo noma lapho kuvela izimpawu zokuqala zesifo, kuyadingeka ukwelapha nge-fungicides:

IZINDLELA NEZINQUBO ZOKUNISELA, IZIMALI ZOKUNIKEZA.Isivuno esiphezulu esiqhubekayo samakhukhamba ekhwalithi enhle singatholakala kuphela ngokuhlela ukuchelela okuvamile, kucatshangelwa umphumela wawo ekushiseni, emhlabathini nasemoyeni.

I-Bayleton 25% w.p. - 0.3 kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-20.

I-Peronosporosis.

Lapho unisela ngokufafaza, kuye ngezimo zezulu, okungenani ukuchelela okungu-3-4 kufanele kwenziwe, futhi okungcono 6-10 nge-normal 250-400 cubic metres. m/ha.

Confidor 20% w.w.c. - 0.4 l/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-20.
I-Acrobat MC 69% w.p. - 2 kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-20.
IZIBAKALA ZOMhlabathi.

Kodwa, ngisho nokucabangela zonke izici ezinhle zokulima ku-trellis, abalimi abasafufusa abanconywa ukuthi baqale ukusebenza ezindaweni ezinkulu.
I-oxychloride yethusi - 2.4 kg / ha - izinsuku ezingu-20.
Ekulweni ne-wireworm, izintuthwane kanye nezibungu ze-germ fly, ukwelashwa ngamalungiselelo kunconywa:

I-drip irrigation system ifakwa ngaphambi kokuhlwanyela ukuze ukwazi ukuchelela ngesikhathi futhi uthole ubungane, ngisho nezithombo.

Ukunikezwa kwesixazululo somsoco, ngokusebenzisa uhlelo lokunisela nge-drip, lwenziwa phakathi nomjikelezo wokunisela, noma phakathi noma ekupheleni komjikelezo, kodwa ngendlela yokuthi ekupheleni komjikelezo kudingekile ukudonsa ukudonsa. uhlelo lokunisela.

Ngobuchwepheshe bokulima ezimbonini, kuyadingeka ukuthi kube nezinhlobonhlobo noma ama-hybrids anokukhiqiza okuphezulu, ukudayiswa, kanye nezimfanelo ezinhle zokukhetha izithelo. Izinhlobo ze-Parthenocarpic ne-bee-pollinated and hybrids zilinywa endaweni evulekile. Izinhlobo ze-Parthenocarpic zihlukile ezinhlobonhlobo ze-bee-pollinated ngoba zakha izithelo ngaphandle kokuvundiswa. Ngokwezakhi zofuzo, izinhlobo ze-parthenocarpic, ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kwazo okuqhubekayo ngokuzalanisa, zibonakala ngokuvuthwa kwangaphambi kwesikhathi kanye nesivuno esiphezulu, kanye nokunambitheka okuphezulu (ukuntuleka kokubaba ngaphansi kwezimo ezicindezelayo).

Izimo eziyinhloko zokuthola isivuno esikhulu samakhukhamba nokufeza ukusebenza kahle kwezomnotho.

Lapho ukhula ikhukhamba ku-trellis, uhlelo lokuvikela luhlala lufana nesitshalo esivundlile.

amalungiselelo ethusi (i-chloride yethusi, i-Kuproksat, i-Kuprosil, i-Kurzat R) - 2-3 kg / ha.

I-Pasynkovanie idinga ukwenziwa ngesikhathi, kuze kube yilapho izingane zokutholwa zingakakhuli, lokhu kusiza umsebenzi wabasebenzi futhi kuthuthukise isimo esijwayelekile sezitshalo. Ngaphezu kokucindezela, omunye umsebenzi kufanele wenziwe njalo - ukutshala iziqu, lokhu kusebenza kwenziwa ngabasebenzi izikhathi ezingu-1-2 ngesonto.

I-Acrobat MC 69% w.p. - 2 kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-30.
I-Karate 050 EC, k.u. - 0.1 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.

I-anthracnose.

Ezinhlotsheni ezikhula kancane kanye nama-hybrids, ukuqina kwezitshalo ezifinyelela ezinkulungwaneni ezingama-50 ngehektha ngalinye kungenzeka. Izinhlelo zokuhlwanyela nazo zincike ezindleleni zemishini ezisetshenziswayo.

Lapho kuvela ama-thrips, ukwelashwa kwamakhemikhali ngama-insecticides kwenziwa:

I-Karate 050 EC, k.u. - 0.1 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.

Bazudin 60% w.e. -1.5 l/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-20.

Isiphazamisi.

Kungenzeka ukunciphisa izinga lomonakalo nge-bacteriosis ngokusebenzisa ukushisa kwembewu (60-70C), ukwelashwa kwembewu nge-zinc sulfate kuyanconywa. Kuyadingeka futhi ukwenza ukwelashwa kokuvimbela ngamalungiselelo aqukethe ithusi.

I-Allett 80% w.p. - 2 kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-7.

Ama-thrips.

Endle, izitshalo ezincane zekhukhamba zivame ukulinyazwa ama-wireworms, izibungu ze-sprout fly.

I-Ridomil Gold 25% w.p. -1 kg/ha, -10 izinsuku.
Izinambuzane ezimuncayo zitholakala kusukela ngasekupheleni kuka-April kuya phakathi no-September. Zilimaza iziqongo zamahlumela, amaqabunga amancane, ama-buds, okuholela ekwakhekeni kwama-ovari amabi, ukusonta nokomisa amaqabunga.

Izinyathelo zokulawula:

Ngaphambi kokuqhakaza, ukhukhamba kufanele uniselwe lapho umswakama wenhlabathi ongqimba luka-0-30 cm wehlela ku-70% we-FPV. Ngesikhathi sokuqhakaza kwezimbali eziningi kanye nokwakheka kwezithelo, umswakama akufanele wehlele ngaphansi kuka-80% we-FPV ongqimbeni luka-0-50 cm.

Isiko eliqondile linezinzuzo zalo:

Izinyathelo zokulawula:

Ukunakekelwa okukhethekile kufanele kuthathwe lapho unisela emazingeni okushisa aphansi, ukuvimbela ukugcwala kwamanzi, ukuze kungacasuli ukuthuthukiswa kwezifo.
Isinambuzane esingu-2-3 mm ubude. Buthelelani ngamaqembu ngaphansi kweqabunga noma kumahlumela aluhlaza. Bancela ujusi ezitshalweni, ngokuvamile kakhulu deforming amaqabunga, amahlumela nezithelo, inhibiting futhi buthaka izitshalo, ukunciphisa isivuno sabo, okungase kuholele ekufeni ngaphambi kwesikhathi kwezitshalo.

Izisekelo zifakwa ngezikhawu ze-4-5 m. Ucingo oluphansi lunwetshiwe ezingeni lika-20-30 cm, ucingo olungaphezulu - 1.8 - 2 - 2.5 m.

Izinhlobo ezilandelayo nama-hybrids ahlangabezana nalezi zidingo:

Actellik 500 EC, k.u. - 0.3-1.5 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.
Izifo ezivame kakhulu zamakhukhamba yilezi: i-peronosporosis, i-powdery isikhutha, i-anthracnose, i-bacteriosis, i-fusarium wilt. Lapho kuvela izimpawu zokuqala zesifo emaqabunga, izitshalo ziphathwa ngama-fungicides:

I-Quadris - 0.6 l/ha. - 5 izinsuku.

I-Powdery mildew.

Ukuqubuka kwalesi sifo kubonakala lapho kuqala isimo sezulu esishisayo esizinzile. I-Powdery mildew ihlasela amaqabunga, yenze amabala amhlophe kuwo, okuthi, lapho ekhula, embozwe yi-powdery sporulation. Ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile, iqabunga leqabunga lingambozwa ngokuphelele nge-sporulation futhi life.

Amakhizane.

I-Alyette 80% w.p. -2kg/ha, - izinsuku ezingu-7.
UKUHLANZA KANYE NEZIDINGO ZEKHWALITHI YOMKHIQIZO.

Imisebenzi yokuvuna ukhukhamba iyona edinga kakhulu umsebenzi. Ukhukhamba kumele uvunwe njalo. Ngokubambezeleka ekuvuneni, esimweni sezulu esishisayo, ingxenye enkulu yesilimo ilahlekelwa inani laso lokuhweba. Ukubambezeleka ekuvuneni izithelo kuhlanganisa ukuvinjelwa kwezitshalo kanye nokuba buthaka kwezithelo. Ukuze uthole imikhiqizo yekhwalithi ephezulu ehlangabezana nazo zonke izidingo zefekthri, ukusampula kufanele kwenziwe nsuku zonke, ukugwema ukukhula ngokweqile. Ngesikhathi sokuvuna okuningi, izithelo ezikhule ngokweqile kufanele zisuswe. Baqeda izitshalo, besebenzisa izakhi ezengeziwe, ngakho-ke banciphisa isivuno. Ukugwema lokhu, okungenani abasebenzi abayi-10-12 kufanele bahlanganyele ekuvuneni ukhukhamba ngehektha elilodwa. Ifektri ibeka ngokucacile imibandela yokuhlinzekwa kwekhukhamba (bheka okunamathiselwe), futhi njengoba abalimi abaningi bengabahlinzeki be-Chumak CJSC,

Confidor 20% w.w.c. - 0.4 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.
I-Ridomil MC 72% w.p. -2.5 kg/ha, -10 izinsuku.
Kungenzeka ukunciphisa izinga lomonakalo nge-bacteriosis ngokusebenzisa ukushisa kwembewu (Izinga lokushisa - 60 ° -70 ° C, ukwelashwa ezimweni zaselabhorethri kunconywa), ukwelashwa kwembewu nge-zinc sulfate nakho kunconywa. Lapho usebenza nezibulala-zinambuzane, kubalulekile ukuhambisana nezidingo zokuhambisana nezinyathelo zokuphepha kanye nezikhathi zokulinda.

- amathuba okuthola isivuno esiphezulu (50-60 t/ha);
I-Zolon, c.e. - 1l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-30.

Indlela ethuthuke kakhulu yokunisela namuhla ukuchelela nge-drip. Ngale ndlela yokunisela, amanzi angena ngqo endaweni yesistimu yezimpande futhi asetshenziswa kahle izitshalo, ngoba ukuhwamuka kwenzeka kuphela ngesitshalo, hhayi umhlabathi wonke oswakanyiswe, kepha imicu yobubanzi obuthile kuphela. Lokhu konga amanzi, kuvimbela ukukhula kokhula, futhi kunciphisa izindleko zokugcina inhlabathi ihlanzekile kunokhula.

Amagciwane.

I-Previkur 607SL w.r. - 2 l/ha. - izinsuku ezingu-20.
– ukwenziwa lula kohlelo lokucubungula iS.Z.R.
- ukwenza lula ukuvuna.

Lapho ukhukhamba ukhula ezitshalweni, izitshalo eziphakeme nezingaphambili zivunwa.
Ikhukhamba ayifuni kakhulu ekukhanyeni kunezinye izitshalo zemifino, kodwa izinhlobo zendawo evulekile zidinga ukukhanya okuhle, ikakhulukazi izitshalo ezincane.

Izimo, izindlela kanye nobuchwepheshe ukhukhamba ezikhulayo

Indawo yokuhlala. Izandulela ezingcono kakhulu zekhukhamba yizitshalo ezikhulula inhlabathi kusenesikhathi: umhlophe wokuqala noma ukholifulawa, amazambane okuqala, ama-legumes (ngaphandle kukabhontshisi), ake sithi utamatisi. Izitshalo zezimpande, ikakhulukazi ama-beet, azithandeki kangako. Akunconywa ukuhlwanyela ikhukhamba ngemuva kwekhukhamba nezinye izitshalo zamathanga, njengoba lokhu kuholela ekuqoqweni kwama-phytopathogens athile emhlabathini. Ikhukhamba ingabuyiselwa endaweni efanayo kuphela ngemva kweminyaka engu-2-3.
Ngemuva kokuhlwanyela imbewu emhlabathini, imigqa imbozwa nge-peat, sawdust, ne-humus. Lokhu kuvikela izitshalo ekugwetshweni, kuphakamisa izinga lokushisa lomhlabathi ekujuleni kuka-5-10 cm ngo-2-5 ° C, kuvimbela ukuhwamuka komswakama futhi kuvimbele ukhula.
Ukondla okulandelayo kwenziwa ngemuva kwezinsuku eziyi-10-14, kukhuphula umthamo womanyolo wamaminerali izikhathi eziyi-1.5-2.
Ukondla kubaluleke kakhulu kumakhukhamba. Emhlabathini ompofu wenziwa izikhathi ezi-3-4, emhlabathini ogcwele kahle izikhathi ezi-1-2.

Incazelo kanye nezidingo ezijwayelekile zokutshala

Imbewu - izithelo ezivuthiwe ngokwebhayoloji zikhulu kakhulu kunemifino, zinombala ohlukile wezinhlobonhlobo, kwesinye isikhathi zinephethini yesici. Ngamunye wabo uqukethe ngokwesilinganiso kusuka ku-50 kuya ku-400 imbewu. Imbewu ivuthwa ezinsukwini ezingama-55-65 ngemuva kokuvundiswa kwezimbali. Imbewu engxenyeni ephakathi yesithelo ivuthwe ngaphambili futhi ibe nesisindo esandayo, inzalo evela kumbewu enjalo ikhiqiza kakhulu. Imbewu ivame ukuba isicaba, ibushelelezi, i-oblong (inde kakhulu ezinhlobonhlobo ezinezithelo ezinde), ukhilimu omhlophe noma okhanyayo ngombala, ubude obungu-5-17 mm. Isisindo sembewu engu-1000 singama-16-35 g.
Zizwela kakhulu embusweni wokushisa ngesikhathi sokuqhakaza ne-fruiting: ebusuku amazinga okushisa angaphansi kuka-16 ° C, ukukhula kwama-ovari kuyama.
Ikhukhamba isitshalo saminyaka yonke se-herbaceous somndeni we-gourd esine-liana-like, isiqu esinwabuzelayo esisuka ku-20 cm kuya ku-2 m ubude namafomu amaqabunga. Isiqu siyakhasa, phambi kwezisekelo - sibambelele kuzo ngezimpondo, ezimbambo, ezimbozwe izinwele ezinzima, ezibuthakathaka noma eziqinile. Amahlumela avela esiqwini esikhulu. Kwamanye ama-hybrids, ukuthuthukiswa kwamahlumela aseceleni kukhawulelwe kokukodwa kuphela, futhi igatsha liphetha ngokubunjwa kwezithelo.
Ngesikhathi esifanayo, umswakama owedlulele uholela ekufeni kwezinwele zezimpande. Ukunisela okuningi nokungavamile kunenzuzo enkulu kunokujwayelekile, ikakhulukazi emhlabathini osindayo.
Ngomswakama owandayo, ukwakheka kwezimpande ezengeziwe kungenzeka.
Lapho kuncipha, izithombo azikhishwa, kodwa zinqunywe ukuze zingalimazi izitshalo ezisele. Ngemuva kwezinsuku ezingu-2-3, inhlabathi iyathukululwa ekujuleni kuka-10-15 cm.

Ukukhula ukhukhamba

Ikhukhamba isitshalo sezinsuku ezimfushane, ukukhiqiza kwayo okuphezulu kakhulu kusezinsuku ezingamahora angama-9-12, noma kunjalo, kunezinhlobonhlobo ezinokusabela okungathathi hlangothi kubude bosuku.
Ukuvikela izithombo eqhweni futhi kusheshiswe ukubukeka kwazo, i-groove yenziwa ijule (10-12 cm) ukuze emva kokuhlwanyela imbozwe ngengilazi noma ifilimu.
Njengamanje, ukhukhamba usuthole ukuthandwa cishe kuwo wonke amazwe omhlaba, akukho umndeni owodwa ongakwenza ngaphandle kwawo.
Ukuvuna kuqala ezinsukwini ezingama-30-45 ngemuva kokuvela.
Izinhlobonhlobo zezinhlobonhlobo ezivumelaniswe nezimo ezikhulayo ezihlukene cishe yonke indawo zikuvumela ukuthi uthole ukhukhamba omusha unyaka wonke. Endaweni ye-Non-Chernozem yaseRussia, amakhukhamba atshalwa endaweni evulekile ehlobo, endaweni evikelekile entwasahlobo, ekwindla nasebusika, futhi nasekhaya - efulethini, kuvulandi, efasiteleni, efasiteleni.
Ngaphansi kwamakhukhamba, kwabelwa izindawo ezikhanyiswe kahle futhi zifudunyezwe, zivikelekile ngokuthembekile emimoyeni, ikakhulukazi emakhazeni. Uma kungekho ukuvikelwa okuthembekile emoyeni, khona-ke kudalwa ukuhlwanyela izitshalo ezinde ezakha i-backstage (ubhontshisi wemifino, ubhekilanga). Ikhukhamba linikeza isivuno esiphezulu enhlabathini evundile, ekhanyayo (enesihlabathi, i-loamy). Umhlabathi osindayo, obandayo, oneasidi, ogcwele amanzi awuwufanele. Ukusabela okuhle kakhulu kwesisombululo senhlabathi yi-pH 6.4-7.5. Emhlabathini one-acidic, ukufakwa kwe-lime kwenziwa kangcono ngaphansi kwesitshalo sangaphambilini sokumba inhlabathi (0.4-0.9 kg / m2 ye-lime). Ekwindla, indawo yamakhukhamba imbiwa ifike ekujuleni okungamasentimitha angama-20-25. Entwasahlobo, u-6 kg womquba noma umquba kanye no-40-90 g we-nitrophoska noma 15-18 g we-ammonium nitrate, 20-30 g we i-superphosphate, i-15-18 g ye-potassium chloride yengezwa ukumba nge-m2 ngayinye.
Izithelo zisuswa njalo ezinsukwini ezingama-2-3, futhi ngesikhathi sokuqhakaza kwezithelo - ngemuva kwezinsuku eziyi-1-2.
Ezinsukwini ezingama-5-6 ngaphambi kokutshala emhlabathini, izithombo ziyaqiniswa: izindawo zokukhosela ziyasuswa, amakamelo afakwa umoya, ukuchelela kuncishisiwe. Izithombo kufanele zibe squat, eziqinile, ezinama-internode amafushane, zibe namaqabunga aluhlaza amnyama kanye nesistimu yezimpande ethuthuke kahle.
Ngaphambi kokutshala izithombo, kwenziwa izimbobo engadini futhi ilitha lamanzi afudunyezwe elangeni lithelwa kuyo ngayinye. Izithombo zitshalwa enhlabathini ngokushaywa ngonqenqema olungaphezulu lwebhodwe. Ngemuva kokutshala futhi ezinsukwini zokuqala, izitshalo ziniselwa njalo.
Izinga lokushisa elilungile lokuhluma kwembewu ngu +18..+25°C, izinga lokushisa elivuna kakhulu ekukhuleni nasekukhuleni kwezitshalo ngu +20..+25°C.

Ikhukhamba isitshalo esithela impova. Ngisho nezimbali ezithanda ubulili obubili zithanda impova ethwalwa yizinambuzane kwesinye isitshalo noma imbali. Amacala okuzithululela impova awandile kakhulu.
Imbewu eneminyaka engu-3-4 ubudala ifaneleka kakhulu ukuhlwanyela. Imbewu yonyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokuhlwanyela ishisiswe ku-60 ° C amahora angu-2-3. Imbewu ikhethwa ngamandla adonsela phansi athile. Ukuze wenze lokhu, bacwiliswa ku-3-5% yesisombululo sikasawoti wetafula (30-50 g / l wamanzi) futhi, ngokushesha nje lapho behlala phansi, isixazululo siyakhanywa, imbewu igezwa ngamanzi agelezayo. futhi omisiwe.
Akufanele kuvunyelwe ukukhulisa izithelo, ngaphandle kwalokho ukukhula kokunye kubambezelekile.
Izitshalo ezincane zondliwa ngesisombululo esibuthakathaka sikamanyolo we-organic noma amaminerali.
Ukhukhamba ungowomndeni we-gourd. Izwe lakubo libhekwa njengezindawo ezishisayo nezishisayo zaseNdiya.

E-Russia, lesi siko sandile kusukela ngekhulu le-16.
Imbewu ivame ukuhlwanyelwa ezinsukwini ezingama-35-40 ngaphambi kokutshala izithombo.
Ikhukhamba iphendula kahle ukuchelela. Kufanele iniselwe kuphela ngamanzi afudumele (+20 .. + 25 ° С), kungcono ntambama, kodwa kungakapheli amahora angu-18-19, futhi phakathi nobusuku obubandayo - ekuseni. Esigabeni samaqabunga eqiniso angama-4-5, ukukhuphuka okukhanyayo kwenziwa hhayi ngaphezu kwamaqabunga e-cotyledon.
Isithelo sekhukhamba sinamagumbi amathathu, kwesinye isikhathi amane embewu, esigabeni esiphambanayo kuvame ukuba yi-oval-triangular noma iyindilinga.
I-Turkey, i-Crimea, i-Azerbaijan, nesifunda saseVolga kubhekwa njengezikhungo eziyinhloko zokwakhiwa kwezinhlobo zanamuhla zekhukhamba.
Emhlabathini okhanyayo, owomile, uhlwanyelwa endaweni eyisicaba ngendlela yebhande noma yemigqa enezikhala zemigqa engu-90-100 cm. Ukuze inhlabathi emagqumeni ifudumale kangcono, kungcono ukuyiqondisa ukusuka empumalanga kuya entshonalanga. Amagquma enziwe ngobubanzi obungamasentimitha angama-90, futhi izindlela phakathi kwawo zingamasentimitha angama-30-40. Ukuhlwanyela kwenziwa emiseleni ejulile ngo-6-8 cm. Lapho kuhlwanyelwa emagqumeni, kudonswa intambo phakathi nendawo kanye nemisele emibili. zidwetshwe ebangeni elingama-20-25 cm ukusuka kuwo. Imbewu ihlwanyelwa njalo ngo-5-6 cm ngokulandelana (izinga lokuhlwanyela i-1 g/m2), itshalwe ekujuleni kuka-1-1.5 cm nomhlabathi omanzi noma i-humus exutshwe nengxenye nenhlabathi.

izidingo zokushisa nomswakama

Ngakho-ke, inhlabathi kufanele ithukululwe ekujuleni okungashoni. Esigabeni samaqabunga e-cotyledon, izitshalo ziyasuswa futhi zincishiswe.

Ukuhlanza nokugcinwa kwamakhukhamba

Ngokuguquguquka okubukhali kwezinga lokushisa, izimpande zezitshalo ziyafa kuqala.
Indlela eyaziwayo yokuvikela izitshalo eqhweni ukuchelela kusihlwa, kanye nokubhema.
Okubaluleke kakhulu usuku olufushane ezinsukwini zokuqala ezingama-20-25 ngemuva kokuhluma. Kwezinye izinhlobo eziseningizimu, ngosuku olude, inqwaba yezitshalo yezitshalo ikhula ngokweqile kulimaza ukwakheka kwezithelo.
Njengoba izwe lekhukhamba liyindawo eshisayo eshisayo, lesi sitshalo sidinga ukushisa okukhulu nomswakama.
Ukuthuthukiswa kwayo kwenzeka ekushiseni kuka + 15 ° C, emazingeni okushisa aphansi lesi sitshalo asitheli.
Ingaphezulu lemifino lincane-i-tuberculate, i-tuberous enkulu, i-glossy ebushelelezi futhi ibushelelezi ebushelelezi, i-pubescent enemigogodla emhlophe noma emnyama. Izithelo ezinama-black pubescence nama-tubercles amakhulu zinezimfanelo ezinhle kakhulu zokukhetha; zingasetshenziselwa ukukhenisa. Izithelo ezinameva amhlophe, ezinama-tubercular ezincane zisetshenziswa kangcono zintsha. Umbala we-Zelentsy - kusuka ku-milky white kuya eluhlaza okumnyama, i-monophonic noma ngephethini ngendlela yemigqa, amachashazi, amachashazi. Izimfanelo zokunambitheka kwezithelo azixhomeki kuphela ekwakhiweni kwamakhemikhali, kodwa futhi nasekuhambisaneni kwe-pulp, ebukhulu bekhasi, kokuqukethwe okubabayo kwezithelo kanye nephunga lazo.
Ukugcwalisa amabhodwe, kusetshenziswa izingxube ezahlukahlukene zomsoco, izakhi eziyinhloko okuyi-peat, humus nesod, noma inhlabathi engadini. Uma i-peat i-acidic, i-lime ngaphambili.
Izifo eziningi zisakazwa ngembewu, ngakho-ke zibulawa amagciwane ngokucwiliswa kwisisombululo esingu-1% se-potanganum permanganate (10 g / l yamanzi) imizuzu engu-20, kulandelwa ukugeza emanzini agelezayo. Ukusheshisa ukuvela kwezithombo, imbewu iyacwiliswa, ifakwe ezikhwameni ze-gauze amahora angu-12 emanzini (+28 ° C). Ukucwiliswa kwembewu ngesisombululo esinamanzi sezakhi zokulandelela kusebenza kahle: 5 g we-baking soda, 0.1 g we-potassium permanganate, 1 g we-ammonium molybdate, 0.2-0.3 g we-boric acid, 0.02-0.05 g we-sulphate yethusi zichithwa ku-1 litre. amanzi, ashiselwe kufika ku-+40…+45° С. Imbewu icwiliswa kwisisombululo esifudumele amahora angu-12. Ukuze uthole amahlumela anobungane, imbewu iyahluma. Imbewu ecwilisiwe isakazwa ungqimba oluncane (6-8 cm) endaweni efudumele ku-sawdust embozwe nge-gauze noma iphepha lokuhlunga, bese imbozwa ngolunye ungqimba lwe-gauze futhi imbozwe kancane nge-sawdust emanzi.
Ikhukhamba isitshalo esithanda umswakama kakhulu kuzo zonke izitshalo zemifino; yenza izimfuno eziphezulu hhayi kuphela kumswakama wenhlabathi, kodwa nakumswakama womoya. Ukuze kube nezithelo ezinhle, ukuchelela njalo kuyadingeka; ngokuntuleka komswakama, izitshalo ziyayeka ukukhula futhi zakhe izimbali eziningi zesilisa.
Izingxube zokubunjwa okulandelayo zizibonakalise kahle: i-lowland peat - izingxenye ezingama-5-7 kanye ne-humus - izingxenye ezi-3; i-humus - 1 ingxenye, i-turf noma inhlabathi engadini - izingxenye ezi-2; i-peat - izingxenye ezi-5, i-humus -1 ingxenye, sawdust - 1 ingxenye. Ngo-10 kg wengxube, engeza u-5-6 g we-ammonium nitrate ne-potassium chloride, 20-25 g we-superphosphate ephindwe kabili kanye no-20-30 g we-lime. Ngaphambi kokuhlwanyela imbewu, kunconywa ukuthi unisele ingxube ezimbizeni ngesisombululo sikamanyolo we-micronutrient. Lokhu kudingekile ikakhulukazi lapho kufakwa umcako engxube yezakhi, okuvimbela ukufinyelela kwezakhi zokulandelela ezitshalweni.
I-Zelentsy iyindilinga, i-ovoid, i-spindle-shaped, i-cylindrical, i-elliptical, i-sickle-shaped. Ezinhlotsheni eziningi, ikakhulukazi endaweni evikelekile, izithelo zinesisekelo eside - intamo.
Kusuka kokuphilayo, i-mullein ehlanjululwe ngamanzi (1: 5), umquba wenkukhu (1:10 noma 1:15), noma umlotha (izinkomishi ezimbili ngamalitha ayi-10 amanzi) zisetshenziswa.

Ukuhlwanyela imbewu yekhukhamba

Ukunciphisa okwesibili kwenziwa ngesonto ngemva kokuqala, kushiya u-10-15 cm phakathi kwezitshalo ngokulandelana.
Uhlelo lwempande luyimpande eyinhloko emise okwenduku enamagatsha asemaceleni, agxile ongqimbeni olungaphezulu lomhlabathi (20-40 cm) futhi ihlukana phakathi nendawo engafinyelela ku-1.5 m. Imbewu engu
-2 itshalwe ebhodweni ngalinye ukujula. 0.5-1 cm, inisela, izimbiza ezimbozwe ngefilimu bese zishiya ekushiseni kwama-20 ... 25 ° C. Amahlumela avela, njengomthetho, ngosuku lwe-3-6. Ezinsukwini zokuqala ezingu-3-5 ngemva kokuvela kwazo, izinga lokushisa liyancipha libe ngu-12 ... 16 ° C.
Izitshalo zidinga ukungathathi hlangothi (pH 6.4-7.0), inhlabathi enesakhiwo, evundile kakhulu, etshalwe kahle. Imihlabathi enezinga eliseduze lamanzi angaphansi komhlaba ayifanele ikhukhamba. Izitshalo zisabela ekuxegisweni, ngisho nokuntuleka komoya-mpilo kancane emhlabathini, ukukhula kwesistimu yezimpande kubambezelekile, futhi ngokuphawulekayo (izimo ze-anaerobic), izimpande eziningi ziyafa.
Izithelo ezivuthwa ekuqaleni ziqala ukuthela ngosuku lwama-30-50 ngemuva kokuhluma, ukuvuthwa okuphakathi - ngo-50-60, ukuvuthwa sekwephuzile - ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingu-60 kamuva. Eminyakeni engama-500 ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaKristu. AmaGreki, bese kuba amaRoma, ayesebenza ekulimeni ukhukhamba. Njengoba ikhukhamba i-thermophilic futhi yesaba isithwathwa, yahlala eYurophu kuphela ekupheleni kweNkathi Ephakathi. Emhlabathini ovulekile, izithombo zitshalwa ezindaweni zokugcina izithombo, ngaphansi kwezakhiwo zefilimu zesikhashana noma ekhaya efasiteleni.


Ukukhula izithombo ukhukhamba

ukucubungula imbewu

Isixazululo silungiswa endishini yoqweqwe lwawo: ngamalitha ayi-10 amanzi, thatha u-0.8 g we-sulfate yethusi ne-magnesium, i-0.08 g ye-zinc sulfate ne-manganese, i-0.15 g ye-boric acid. Lesi samba sesixazululo sanele ku-3 m2.
Izitshalo zihlushwa kakhulu amakhaza nomswakama isikhathi eside kunesomiso eside.

Ukulungiswa komhlabathi ukhukhamba

Ngokwezinga lokuvuthwa, izinhlobo zekhukhamba zihlukaniswa zibe ukuvuthwa kokuqala, ukuvuthwa okuphakathi kanye nokuvuthwa sekwephuzile.
Amakhaza asebusuku ehlobo nasekuqaleni kwekwindla kunciphisa kakhulu isikhathi sokukhula, futhi nesithwathwa esincane ngokuvamile sibhubhisa izitshalo.
Kusuka kumanyolo wamaminerali wokudla kokuqala ngamalitha ayi-10 amanzi, thatha: 16-24 g we-ammonium sulfate, 15-20 g we-potassium chloride kanye no-10-20 g we-superphosphate noma 20-40 g we-nitrophoska.
Emazingeni okushisa aphezulu kanye nomswakama ophezulu, izithombo zikhula ngokushesha, kodwa zikhiqiza amaqabunga amakhulu kanye nesistimu yezimpande ebuthakathaka. Kuthatha izimpande kubi kakhulu, ngakho-ke, esimweni sezulu esishisayo, izinga lokushisa ekamelweni lapho izithombo zikhule khona akufanele libe ngaphezu kuka + 18 ... .

Ukunakekela Ikhukhamba

Ikhukhamba ikhula kunoma iyiphi inhlabathi, kodwa ikhetha inhlabathi evundile equkethe u-3-4% we-humus. Inhlabathi evundile ekhanyayo noma enesihlabathi enesihlabathi esinomsoco ophezulu nayo ifanelekile. Inhlabathi engangenisi amanzi, ene-loamy esindayo idinga ukuthuthukiswa kwangaphambili. Ezifundeni ezisenyakatho, kungcono ukwaba iziza zekhukhamba emthambekeni oseningizimu namanzi angaphansi ajulile.

Imbewu ihlwanyelwa ekupheleni kuka-April ezimbizeni ze-peat.
Amaqabunga angama-petiolate, anamazinga ahlukene emiphetho eboshiwe, ayindilinga eyi-pentagonal futhi ayi-oval, anobuso obushelelezi noma obushwabene, obucwebezelayo ngenhla nangaphansi (kodwa kukhona amafomu angenayo i-pubescence). Kuma-axils amaqabunga, ama-antennae, ama-rudiments amahlumela aseceleni, izimbali zesifazane noma zesilisa ziyakhiwa.
Ikhukhamba isitshalo esithanda ukushisa kakhulu esidinga ukukhanya okuningi, umswakama nokushisa. Isikhathi sokuhlwanyela sincike esimweni sezulu. Kuyadingeka ukuthi kudlule isithwathwa, inhlabathi ifudumale ifike ku + 12 ... + 13 ° С ekujuleni kuka-8-10 cm, futhi izinga lokushisa lomoya lifinyelele ku- + 15 ... + 20 ° С (ngokuvamile lokhu kwenzeka. eshumini le-III likaMeyi - eshumini lokuqala likaJuni). Ukuhlwanyela okuxubile kwembewu eyomile, emanzi kanye nehluma kuvame ukusetshenziswa. Ngesikhathi sokubuya kwesimo sezulu esibandayo, amahlumela okuqala avela embewini emile futhi emanzi ayafa, kuyilapho kamuva amahlumela avela komile. Ikhukhamba ihlwanyelwa enhlabathini esanda kutshalwa, igwema ukuphumula phakathi kokulima nokuhlwanyela. Inhlabathi ngesikhathi sokuhlwanyela kufanele ibe manzi, uma yomile - iniselwe.
Uma izitshalo zingambozwanga, khona-ke uqweqwe oluminyene lwakha enhlabathini enzima futhi ephakathi, okuvimbela ukufinyelela komoya ekuhlumeni kwembewu, okwenza kube nzima ukuthi zikhule.

Ukhukhamba athandwa kakhulu phakathi kwabalimi, atshalwa ukusetshenziswa okusha, ukucwiliswa kanye nokulungiswa kwama-pickle ahlukahlukene. Abalimi be-Cucumber banikezela indawo engcono kakhulu esizeni sabo. Ukwazi nokulandela wonke amathiphu okunakekela isitshalo, ungavuna isivuno esikhulu semifino.

Umbhede wengadi namakhukhamba

Ungakhetha kanjani izinhlobonhlobo zokutshala ukhukhamba endaweni evulekile?

Ukukhetha okuhlukahlukene akulula. Kuze kube manje, kunenani elikhulu lazo, futhi zonke zinezici ezihlukile.

Yini okufanele uyibheke lapho ukhetha izinhlobonhlobo zamakhukhamba:

  • Izinhlobonhlobo zokuvuthwa okuhlukile. Emhlabathini ovulekile kungcono ukukhulisa izinhlobo eziningana zemifino. Abanye kufanele balethe isivuno ekuqaleni kwehlobo, abanye phakathi, kanti abanye ekupheleni. Lokhu kulula njengoba uzobe ukha ukhukhamba phakathi nenkathi yehlobo.
  • Ukuzikhukhumeza. Kungcono ukukhetha izitshalo ezingadingi impova eyengeziwe. Izinhlobo ezizithululela impova zichazwe kulesi sihloko.
  • Ukuqina okubandayo nokubekezelela umthunzi. Akekho ongabikezela kahle ukuthi isimo sezulu sizoba njani kulo lonke ihlobo, ngakho khetha izinhlobo ezingasinda kunoma iyiphi imvula nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.
  • Isaladi noma pickling. Lapha umsebenzi oyinhloko ukunquma ngenhloso yokulima. Ezinye izinhlobo zilungele usawoti kuphela, ezinye zisha kakhulu, kepha azifanele ukulondolozwa. Naka lokhu, kodwa kunalokho tshala izinhlobo eziningana zamakhukhamba.
  • Igatsha. Ukweqisa kwegatsha kubangela ukukhathazeka okuningi ngesikhathi sokunakekelwa kwezitshalo. Inani elikhulu lokuhlaza lisusa amandla esitshalo, futhi izithelo ziyancishiswa kulokhu. Ngakho-ke, kungcono ukukhetha izinhlobo ezibonakala ngesihlahla esihlangene.

Imithetho yokutshala ukhukhamba

Ukutshala okulula kwembewu yekhukhamba ngeke kuphumelele, ngoba kuyadingeka ukulandela ngokuqinile i-algorithm, futhi ulandele imithetho ethile yokuhlwanyela imbewu yekhukhamba emhlabathini.

Ukulungiswa kwembewu

Cishe zonke izakhamuzi zasehlobo zitshala ukhukhamba zisebenzisa indlela yokutshala, njengoba imbewu yalesi sitshalo iqhuma kahle.

Imbewu yamakhukhamba ihlala isebenza iminyaka engu-6, kodwa kungcono ukuthi ungalibali ukuhlwanyela, futhi usebenzise imbewu engekho endala kuneminyaka engu-3 ukuze ukhule izithombo.

Uma usebenzise imbewu ngonyaka odlule, uyazi ukuthi iqhuma kanjani futhi ngokushesha kangakanani. Kodwa uma imbewu ithengiwe, kungcono ukuyicubungula kusengaphambili futhi uyilungiselele ukuhlwanyela. Okokuqala, khetha izibonelo ezinhle kakhulu (ezinkulu, eziphelele, ezingenawo amabala), bese ulahla ezimbi.

Ezitolo ezikhethekile bathengisa okusanhlamvu okuhlanganisiwe noma okukhazimulayo, abadingi ukucutshungulwa, njengoba sebevele sebekulungele ngokuphelele ukutshala. Imbewu enjalo ihlwanyelwa ngokushesha ngendlela eyomile.

Ngemuva kokukhethwa kwembewu, yenza i-disinfection. Sebenzisa i-phytosporin, uyihlambulule ngokulandela imiyalelo. Le nqubo izosiza ukuqeda i-microflora eyingozi esele egobolondweni lokusanhlamvu.

Abalimi abaningi batusa ukusebenzisa isisombululo esibuthakathaka se-potassium permanganate, kodwa abanye babaphikisi babo bakholelwa ukuthi leli khambi lisebenza kancane kune-phytosporin. Ukufaka kufanele kwenziwe okungenani imizuzu engama-20. Bese uhlanza ubhontshisi ngamanzi abandayo ahlanzekile.

Indlela ephumelela kakhulu yokulungiselela imbewu yokutshala ukucwiliswa nokuhluma. Qiniseka ukuthi uwasusa ukungcola kuqala. Ukuze ukhule, thatha imbewu yekhukhamba, uyibeke ku-gauze emanzi, uyibeke epuleti, uyibophe esikhwameni phezulu bese uyibeka endaweni efudumele (+22 ... +26 degrees Celsius). Ngaphansi kwalezi zimo, imbewu izoqhuma phakathi nezinsuku ezi-2.

Uma ungumhlali wasehlobo ovela esifundeni esinzima, kungcono ukwenza ukuqina okwengeziwe. Ukwenza lokhu, faka imbewu emile esiqandisini, kodwa hhayi efrijini, bese ubamba lapho izinsuku ezingu-5. Ngemuva kokuqina, tshala imbewu ezimbizeni ezine-substrate.

Ukuhlwanyela imbewu yezithombo

Isikhathi sokuhlwanyela ngokuqondile sincike endaweni yokuhluma kwesiko, kanye nendawo yokutshala: ku-greenhouse noma emhlabathini ovulekile. Esimweni sezulu esivumayo, ukungabikho kwesithwathwa esiphindaphindiwe, tshala imbewu ekuqaleni kukaMashi, futhi mhlawumbe ekupheleni kukaFebhuwari. Kodwa uma isimo sezulu singavumeli, futhi ihlobo lakho lifika sekwephuzile, kufanele uqale ukukhulisa izithombo kuphela ngo-Ephreli.

ikhukhamba yisithombo

Ukutshala imbewu yezithombo: umdwebo wesinyathelo ngesinyathelo

Inhlabathi engcono kakhulu yokutshala izithombo zamakhukhamba: i-peat, umhlaba we-sod, sawdust kanye ne-humus (konke kuxutshwe ngezilinganiso ezilinganayo). Uma ungenalo ithuba noma isifiso sokwenza ingxube ngezandla zakho, ungayithenga esitolo.

Abalimi baqaphela izinketho ezimbili zokutshala izithombo:

  1. Esitsheni esisodwa esinokufakelwa kwekusasa kwamahlumela.
  2. Ezinkomishini ngazinye.

Lesi siko asikubekezeleli ngaso sonke isikhathi ukufakelwa, ngakho-ke kungcono ukutshala izitshalo ngokushesha ezinkomishini ezihlukene. Naphezu kwendlela oyikhethile, imbewu kufanele ifakwe emigodini ngaphandle kokuyijulisa, uchoboze inhlabathi encane phezulu. Ungakhohlwa ukuthambisa kusengaphambili. Ngemva kokuhlwanyela okusanhlamvu okumile, nisela inhlabathi futhi kancane emshinini wokufafaza, bese ubeka izinkomishi (isitsha esisodwa) endaweni efudumele.

Ukuze imbewu ikhululeke, futhi iqhume ngokushesha, kufanele imbozwe ngefilimu noma ingilazi. Lapho kuvela amahlumela, qiniseka ukuthi uyayisusa indawo yokukhosela. Ekushiseni kuka + 20 ... + 26 degrees Celsius, ngemva kwezinsuku ezingu-5-7, amaqabunga okuqala kufanele avele. Ngalesi sikhathi, nisela izitshalo njengoba inhlabathi yomile.

ukunakekelwa kwezithombo

Uma kubanda kakhulu efasiteleni noma umoya uvunguza njalo, akufanele ubeke iziqukathi lapho. Zibeke kwenye indawo, futhi unxephezele ukuntuleka kokukhanya ngokukhanyisa okwengeziwe.

Izinga lokushisa

Ngokushesha nje lapho ama-cotyledons evuleka, kancane kancane wehlise izinga lokushisa libe ngu-+15 ... +17 degrees izinsuku ezingu-2-4 ukuze izithombo zingaqali ukwelula noma ukugoba. Ezinsukwini ezilandelayo, izinga lokushisa ligcinwa ku-+17 ... +19 degrees, ebusuku lehliselwa ku-+14 degrees.

Ukukhanyisa

Ukhukhamba uzwela kakhulu ebukhoneni bokukhanya, ngakho-ke, esimweni sezulu esinamafu, izithombo kufanele zibekwe ngaphansi kwe-phytolamp. Uma izitshalo zihluma ezindlini zokugcina izithombo, khona-ke zibuye zivulwe ukuze imisebe yelanga iwele kumahlumela kaningi ngangokunokwenzeka.

Ukunisela

Izithombo zamakhukhamba ngaphandle kokunisela okufanele zizofa. Umhlabathi kufanele uhlale unomswakama, noma kunjalo, umswakama omile kufanele ugwenywe. Amanzi anezelwa efudumele noma ekamelweni lokushisa. Uhlelo lwempande yesiko lufa emanzini abandayo.

ukuncipha

Lapho utshala izithombo ezimbizeni ezihlukene, hlwanyela imbewu emi-2 kulelo nalelo. Uma zombili zihluma, khona-ke udinga ukukhetha eziqine kakhulu, futhi usike okwesibili ngesikelo. Akunconywa ukukhipha ihlumela, ngaphandle kwalokho kunengozi yokulimaza uhlelo lwezimpande zesitshalo esisele esinempilo.

Ukuthulula umhlaba

Kuso sonke isikhathi sokukhula kwamahlumela, udinga ukufafaza umhlaba izikhathi eziningana lapho izitshalo zikhula. Qaphela ukuthi ungangezi inhlabathi ngaphezu kwamaqabunga e-cotyledon. Le nqubo izosiza ukuqinisa isimiso sezimpande zezitshalo futhi ekugcineni yandise i-fruiting.

ikhukhamba yisithombo

Ukukha izithombo

Uma unquma ukusebenzisa ibhokisi elikhulu ekukhuleni kwezithombo, khona-ke esigabeni samaqabunga amaningana, amahlumela kufanele acwiliswe, okungukuthi, atshalwe ezitsheni ezihlukene. Ukuze wenze lokhu, thatha ngokucophelela isipuni, ukhiphe ngokucophelela isithombo nge-cd yenhlabathi bese usidlulisela kwesinye isitsha esinomhlabathi omanzi. Bese wengeza inhlabathi bese uyimanzisa.

Lesi siko sithambile kakhulu futhi sintekenteke, ngakho-ke kunzima ukukhetha. Ngisho nezitshalo zinezimpande ezinwebeka kakhulu, ezixhumene nezinye izitshalo. Ngesikhathi sokufakelwa, izithombo zivame ukulimala.

Kungcono ukutshala imbewu ngokushesha ezinkomishini ezihlukene, khona-ke ungagwema izinkinga ngokukhetha.

Ukuqinisa izithombo ngaphambi kokutshala

Ukuqina kusiza ukuqinisa ukungatheleleki kwezitshalo, kufanele kwenziwe isonto ngaphambi kokutshala ukhukhamba emhlabathini ovulekile. Le nqubo ihlanganisa ukuyisa amahlumela emoyeni omusha. Okokuqala, yigcine ngaphandle cishe ingxenye yesine yehora, bese ukwandisa isikhathi.

Ukutshala izithombo endaweni evulekile

Izithombo zibhekwa njengezikhulile futhi zilungele ukutshalwa emhlabathini ovulekile lapho zifinyelela iminyaka engu-20-30 ubudala, futhi zikhule zifike ku-0.3 m ukuphakama.

Ukukhetha nokulungisa umhlabathi

Ukuze isitshalo sithuthuke kahle, udinga ukutshala amahlumela embhedeni ofudumele onezingqimba eziningi. Bheka indawo enelanga nengenamoya. Okokuqala, beka i-drainage layer, ungasebenzisa amagatsha, utshani noma utshani. Beka ungqimba ekujuleni okungaba ngu-0.3-0.5 m, futhi uhlanganise kahle. Beka umquba omusha phezulu.

Ungathinti umbhede kuze kube sekuqaleni kwentwasahlobo, lapho izingqimba zizohlala kancane. Ekuqaleni kukaMeyi, yenza ungqimba lomhlabathi ovundile. Faka ama-arches bese welula ifilimu. Ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbalwa, qhubeka nokutshala ukhukhamba ngokuqondile.

Umquba uzoqala ukuvutha ngaphansi kwenhlabathi evundile, ngokulandelana, uzokhipha ukushisa, okudingekayo ezitshalweni zalesi sitshalo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukhukhamba uzothola zonke izakhi ezidingekayo. Lo mbhede ulungiswa ekwindla, kodwa ungakwenza entwasahlobo.

I-algorithm yokwenza umbhede ofudumele wamakhukhamba entwasahlobo:

  1. Beka ungqimba womquba ku-drainage (kulokhu, ungathatha futhi ongavuthiwe), uxube nezinkomishi ezi-3 zomlotha wezinkuni kanye ne-100 g ye-nitrophoska (nge-1 sq. M ngayinye).
  2. Fafaza ungqimba oluvundile lwenhlabathi phezulu, umboze ngefilimu bese ucindezela phansi ngomthwalo osindayo.
  3. Ungathinti umbhede okungenani izinsuku eziyi-10.
  4. Yenza ama-indentation emibhedeni bese utshala izithombo.

Uma kunzima ukuthenga umquba, khona-ke ungenza umquba okhethekile. Kudalwa ehlobo: baqoqa utshani, ukhula namaqabunga, baphonsa yonke into emgodini owodwa bese beyiphendulela ngefosholo noma ngemfoloko ngezikhathi ezithile. Entwasahlobo kuyoba khona umquba osengadini owenziwe ngomumo.

Ukutshala ukhukhamba emhlabathini ovulekile

Lapho nje kuvela amaqabunga eqiniso angama-2-3 ezitshalweni, izithombo zitshalwa emibhedeni efudumele. Ngaphambi kokutshala izitshalo, inhlabathi iyamanziswa futhi yenziwa izimbobo kuyo ukuze izithombo.

Indlela yokutshala ukhukhamba ekhulayo inikeza umphumela omuhle, inqobo nje uma kwakhiwa indawo yokukhosela yesikhashana kusuka kumaqhwa okuqala angalindelekile.

Isikhathi esihle sokutshala izithombo ukuphela kukaMeyi.

Ngemuva kokunyamalala kwesimo sezulu esibandayo, ungasusa indawo yokukhosela bese uqala ukukhulisa ukhukhamba ku-trellis. Ngokuya ngohlobo lwesitshalo, ibanga phakathi kwezithombo liphakathi kuka-0.3-0.5 m.

Yiziphi izinhlobo zamakhukhamba ezizonikeza isivuno esihle kakhulu endaweni evulekile, ungathola lapha.

Ikhukhamba ihluma engadini

Ukunisela ukhukhamba

Isiko liyawathanda amanzi kakhulu, ngakho ungavumeli isembozo senhlabathi yome. Nisela isiko ngamanzi afudumele azinzile, izitshalo ezibandayo azibekezeleli futhi zivame ukufa kuwo. Uma isimo sezulu singashisi, ukuchelela kwenziwa nganoma yisiphi isikhathi sosuku, kodwa uma kushisa kakhulu, kuphela kusihlwa.

Ku-1 sq. m - 6-12 amalitha amanzi.

Abalimi abanolwazi bakholelwa ukuthi izitshalo zikhula kangcono uma zifuthwe ebhodweni lokuchelela, ngaleyo ndlela zandise umswakama womoya. Ngemuva kokungeza amanzi, khulula inhlabathi, vele ukwenze ngokucophelela ukuze uhlelo lwempande lwamakhukhamba lungonakali. Ngenxa yale nqubo, ukhukhamba uthola umoya owengeziwe, ukuhwamuka komswakama nakho kunciphisa, ngokulandelana, i-photosynthesis izoqala ukwenzeka ngokuvumelana nayo yonke imithetho.

Ukhukhamba ophezulu wokugqoka

Umanyolo ongcono kakhulu wezitshalo umquba. Ku-1 sq. m - 5 kg wemali. Ukugqoka kwamaminerali nakho kuletha imiphumela emihle kakhulu, kuphela kufanele kusetshenziswe ngokucophelela, ngoba ukhukhamba uzwela kakhulu ekushintsheni kwenhlabathi, futhi ukweqisa kwanoma yiziphi izakhi akuphazamisi isiko kahle kakhulu. Ku-1 sq. m ithathwa urea (10 g) + superphosphate (25 g) + potassium sulfate (15 g).

Gcoba nge-phosphorus ne-potassium ekwindla, nange-nitrogen ngaphambi kokuhlwanyela izitshalo.

Izithako ze-Potassium azisizi kangako, ikhambi elingcono kakhulu umlotha wokhuni (100 g nge-1 sq. M). Ihlukile ngoba ayinayo i-chlorine, ukhukhamba angayithandi. Futhi, umlotha wokhuni wehlisa i-asidi yomhlabathi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umlotha uyaziwa iminyaka eminingi, ngakho-ke ukusebenza kwawo kuye kwahlolwa isikhathi.

Hilling

I-Hilling nayo iyasiza kumakhukhamba, kufanele yenziwe izikhathi ezi-2 ngesizini ngayinye. Lesi senzo sizosiza izitshalo zikhule izimpande futhi zivikele amahlumela ezifweni ezihlukahlukene zesikhunta.

Ukwakhiwa kwezihlahla

Ukwakheka komqhele kuyadingeka ukuze kugqugquzele ukukhula kwamahlumela aseceleni, lapho kuzovela khona izimbali zesifazane. Inqubo yenziwa ngokucindezela ihlumela eliphakathi phezu kweqabunga lesi-6. Sicela uqaphele ukuthi izinhlobo zokuvuthwa zakuqala azenzi, inqubo iyadingeka ezitshalweni eziphuzile naphakathi kokuvuthwa.

Ukuvuna

Le mifino ayigcinwa isikhathi eside, ngakho-ke, imbewu yabo ayikwazi ukuziqhayisa ngokugcina isikhathi eside. Izinhlobonhlobo ezinezikhumba eziwugqinsi zihlala zinde kunezinye. Ngemva kokuvuna imifino engadini, yibeke esiqandisini noma kwenye indawo emnyama nebandayo. Ekushiseni, ngemva kwamahora angu-24 bazolahlekelwa izakhiwo zabo ezizuzisayo kanye nokunambitheka okuhle kakhulu kwesici.

Indlela yokwandisa isivuno?

Sekuyisikhathi eside abalimi beqonda ukuthi ukunakekelwa kwekhwalithi ephezulu kanye nokwakheka kwezihlahla akuzona zonke izidingo nezindlela zokwandisa isivuno samakhukhamba. Kukhona ezinye izinketho zokwakhiwa kwenani elikhulu lezimbali zabesifazane.

Amathiphu avela kubalimi abanolwazi:

  • Yeka ukuchelela ngaphambi kokuba kuqale ukuqhakaza. Le ndlela ivuselela izitshalo futhi izinikeze isikhathi "sokucabanga" ukuthi ziyafa. Esimweni esicindezelayo, ukhukhamba uqala ukwakha ama-ovari ngokushesha.
  • Ukukhulisa izinhlobo eziningana endaweni eyodwa. Indlela engcono kakhulu yokwandisa i-fruiting i-cross-pollination.
  • Ukukhala kwesiqu. Yenza ukusika okuncane ngaphansi kwamaqabunga okuqala. Lo msebenzi wenziwa kuphela esimweni sezulu esomile. Ukukhala kuzokwenza kube nzima ukuphuma kwezakhi ohlelweni lwempande futhi kusize isitshalo sakhe ama-ovari amaningi ngangokunokwenzeka.
  • Ukugqoka okuphezulu kwe-Foliar ngenkathi yokwakhiwa kwemifino. Sebenzisa i-urea (ngamalitha ayi-10 amanzi - 20 g womkhiqizo).
  • Ukususwa kwe-ovary yokuqala. Le ndlela iqinisa izimpande futhi inikeze izitshalo amandla okwakha ama-ovari.
  • Ukuheha izinyosi kusayithi. Bathuthukisa impova. Ungakwazi futhi ukutshala izitshalo zoju.
  • Ukuhlelwa okuqondile kwesitshalo. Konke mayelana nezisekelo, zihlukile, kodwa kungcono ukusebenzisa eziqondile ukuze ukhukhamba azizwe ekhululekile kuzo, izithelo zizongena umoya, kuzoba lula ukuvuna, futhi isitshalo sizoqala ukuthela izithelo kangcono.

Ungayithola kanjani isivuno esicebile samakhukhamba endaweni evulekile? Indlela yokukhulisa izithombo zamakhukhamba? Indlela yokondla ukhukhamba? Uzothola konke lokhu uma ubuka ividiyo kuze kube sekupheleni:

Ukunakekela ukhukhamba ngesikhathi fruiting

Lapho nje izitshalo ziqala ukuthela izithelo, ziqoqa zonke izingxenye eziwusizo emhlabathini. Ukungabibikho kwabo kuholela emvuzweni engeyinhle. Ngalesi sikhathi, izithombo kufanele zivundiswe nge-potassium, i-nitrogen ne-magnesium.

Ukuvundisa kwenziwa kabili:

  1. Ekuqaleni, lapho kudingekile ukwandisa inani lesitshalo kanye nekhwalithi yaso. Hlanganisa i-potassium sulphur (30 g) + amanzi (10 l) noma chaza i-tbsp engu-1. l. nitrophoska ku 5 amalitha amanzi. Izinqubo zenziwa kangcono ngosuku oluguqubele. Ukuze uthuthukise umphumela, faka emhlabathini omanzi. Ungasebenzisa futhi umlotha wokhuni (1 inkomishi ngamalitha ama-5 amanzi).
  2. Ekupheleni, lapho ufuna ukunweba isikhathi fruiting. Hlanganisa i-urea (15 g) namanzi (10 L). I-stimulator eqhakaza kabusha iwukufakwa kotshani obunqunyiwe ngesilinganiso se-1: 1 ngamanzi.

Ukhukhamba uyisitshalo esithanda ukushisa; izitshalo ngeke zikwazi ukuthela izithelo kahle ngaphandle kokunakekelwa okufanele. Baletha imiphumela emihle ngemuva kokugqoka okuphezulu, ukukhuphuka, ukukhulula kanye nokwakheka kwehlathi. Nakekela isiko, futhi lizokujabulisa ngesivuno esiningi.

Ukuphina imivimbo yekhukhamba

Siyavuma ukuthi ukhukhamba akulona isiko elilula, futhi akuwona wonke abalimi abangakhula okokuqala. Kodwa uma wenza konke ngendlela efanele, khona-ke isivuno sizokwanela kokubili amasaladi ehlobo nokugcinwa kwasebusika.

Zonke ezinye izinhlobo zingakhiwa ngokuphepha. Uma unesitshalo esizithela impova phambi kwakho, vele usibophe ku-trellis, ulinde ukuthi kuvele imivimbo yokuqala engu-2-3 bese uyimpintsha ngemva kweqabunga lokuqala, bese ucindezela elandelayo lapho isifika engxenyeni yemitha. ngobude.

  • Izinhlobo ezinhle kakhulu nama-hybrids amakhukhamba ngaphandle kokumunyu (incazelo enesithombe)

    Sizokutshela ukuthi yimaphi ukhukhamba azojabulisa isivuno futhi ngeke abe muncu ngaphansi kwanoma yiziphi izimo zezulu.

     

Kubonakala sengathi kunzima ukuqoqa ukhukhamba? Ingane nayo ingakwenza lokhu. Kodwa-ke, akuyona yonke into elula kangaka, ukudonsa imivimbo nokuklebhula izithelo kanye nezingxenye zesiqu akufanelekile - lokhu kuzolimaza isitshalo futhi kusenze buthaka, futhi iziqu ezilimele namaqabunga angaba isango elivulekile lokutheleleka. 

Ukutshala ukhukhamba

Ungaqonda ukuthi ukhukhamba wakho ulahlekelwa okuthile ngokushintsha umbala wamaqabunga kanye nokuma kwesithelo. Kodwa ngezinye izikhathi akukhona nje ukuntuleka kokudla, kodwa futhi ukungahambisani nezindinganiso ezikhulayo, isibonelo: 

Ukutshala ukhukhamba

Akunandaba ukuthi ukhula ukhukhamba ekusakazeni noma ezisekelweni, inhlabathi engaphansi kwayo kufanele isuswe ukhula. Phela uma utshani bushubile, ngokunokwenzeka isitshalo esilinyiwe sisala singenakudla noma sibe yisisulu sezinambuzane. 

Umhlaba uniselwa ngemigqa, uwumanzisa ngo-20 cm, kodwa bazama ukungathululi ngaphansi kwempande ukuze ingaboli. Ingabe ufuna ukufafaza amaqabunga ekhukhamba ngamanzi noma isisombululo esibuthakathaka somanyolo? Kwenze lokhu ngemva kuka-6:00 ntambama, lapho umoya uqala ukuphola nemisebe yelanga ingasaqondile.

Nikeza Ukhukhamba Wakho Ukudla Okunomsoco

  • ukuntuleka kwe-potassium - izithelo ziba ne-pear;

Endabeni yezinambuzane, yonke into ayilula kangako - ingangena ekutshalweni kwakho nganoma yisiphi isikhathi, ngakho-ke udinga ukuhlala uqaphile. Izinambuzane eziyinhloko zamakhukhamba yizibungu zesicabucabu, ama-aphid nama-whiteflies, futhi zingakwazi ukuthelela izitshalo kokubili ku-greenhouse nasendle. 

  • Zonke izinambuzane zasengadini ematafuleni anezincazelo, izithombe nezinyathelo zokulawula

    Sikuhlanganisele "i-dossier" ngesihlukumezi ngasinye - gcina leli qoqo!

     

Nakuba ukhukhamba kuyisitshalo esivamile ezindaweni zethu, izakhamuzi zasehlobo ezimbalwa zingaziqhenya ngokuthi ziqoqa isivuno esikhulu semifino emnandi unyaka nonyaka. Ukhukhamba uyababa, ukubola, ukunikeza izimbali ezingenalutho kuphela noma ungaqhakazi nhlobo ... Ungazivikela kanjani kulezi zinkinga nezinye futhi uthole umphumela oqinisekisiwe? Ungakhohlwa mayelana nezimfihlo ezingu-10 zomlimi onolwazi.

Khetha izinhlobo ezifanele kanye ne-hybrids yamakhukhamba

  • ukumanzisa okungalingani - i-constriction ("ukhalo" ibonakala phakathi kwekhukhamba);

Ukhukhamba awathandi okusalungiswa nomoya, akhetha umoya omile, omanzi. Uma kulula kakhulu ukubahlinzeka ngezimo ezinjalo ku-greenhouse kanye ne-greenhouse, izinkinga zingase ziphakame endaweni evulekile. Imimoya, kanye nokushintsha kwezinga lokushisa, kubangela izifo zamakhukhamba nokubaba kwezithelo. 

Uma amakhambi abantu ezinambuzane zekhukhamba, isibonelo, ukuthungula ngomlotha noma ukufafaza ngesisombululo sensipho eluhlaza, ungasizi, bese uqhubeka namalungiselelo amakhemikhali. Kusuka ezinambuzaneni, i-Iskra Bio, i-Agravertin, i-Fitoverm, i-Pegasus nezinye izidakamizwa zizosiza. 

Ngakho-ke, ikhukhamba kufanele iphulwe ngokucophelela esisekelweni noma, uma ungaqiniseki ukuthi ungakwenza lokhu, usike isiqu ngesikelo.

Ukwakhiwa kwamakhukhamba e-parthenocarpic

Amahlamvu Ikhukhamba wabuna kusukela ukushisa

Moisturize ukhukhamba ngendlela efanele

Ngesikhathi esifanele, cindezela imivimbo yamakhukhamba 

Ukumboza i-cucumber ridge ngotshani

Ukuphina imivimbo yekhukhamba

  • I-cross-pollination yezinhlobo ezahlukene nama-hybrids - izithelo zikhula ngendlela e-arcuate. 

Ngokokuqala ngqa, ungacindezela ukhukhamba ngaphambi kokuthi afinyelele ubude obungama-30 cm, kodwa ubude bawo obukhulu akufanele budlule i-170 cm. 

Imibhede ye-mulch ikhukhamba 

Izinhlobo ze-single-stem kanye nama-hybrids anokukhula okubuthakathaka kwamahlumela aseceleni akudingeki ukuba ancishwe.

: Indlela yokukhulisa ukhukhamba okumnandi

Ngakho-ke, ukutshalwa kwamakhukhamba kufanele kukhuliswe njalo futhi kuthukululwe ukuze umhlaba ungagxumeki. Futhi uma usezweni ngezimpelasonto kuphela, futhi ungenaso isikhathi sokunakekelwa okuphelele okunjalo, kwenze kube lula - mboza amagquma. Kukhukhamba, i-mulch evela ku-peat, i-humus, utshani obugundiwe (ngaphandle kwembewu), utshani bufanelekile. I-Geotextiles izophinde ibe yisixazululo esithembekile nesesikhathi eside. 

Phakathi kwezihlahla kufanele okungenani kube namasentimitha angama-60 ngokulandelana kanye no-120 cm phakathi kwemigqa; ngokulinywa okuqondile, ungatshala ngokuminyene - ebangeni elingama-40-50 cm ukusuka komunye nomunye. Izinhlobo zamakhukhamba e-Bush zingatshalwa ngebanga phakathi kwemigqa engaba ngu-90-100 cm. Ngendlela, kungcono ukuhlwanyela imbewu engu-2 emgodini owodwa ngesikhathi esisodwa, ukuze kamuva ukwazi ukukhetha isitshalo esiqine kakhulu.

Kunoma yikuphi, ngisho nasesitolo esincane kunazo zonke sasengadini, ungathola izikhwama ezingaphezu kweshumi nambili zembewu yekhukhamba. Uma ungazi okwamanje ukuthi iluphi uhlobo olulungele wena, kulula ukukholelwa isithombe esilingayo futhi ubambe iphasela elibonakala likhanya kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, lapho ukhetha izinhlobonhlobo, akufanele ugxile ezithembisweni zabathengisi, kodwa ekuphrintiwe okuncane okuphrintiwe ngemuva kwepakethe.

  • Indlela yokunisela ukhukhamba ukuze uthole isivuno esihle

    Konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nokuchelela ukhukhamba, kuye ngokuthi inkathi kanye nezimo ezikhulayo.

     

Ukuze uvikele izitshalo zakho, zimboze ngezihlangu eziphathwayo ezingasindi ukuya emoyeni noma uzitshale ezingxenyeni zengadi lapho okungekho khona okusalungiswa. 

Amahlamvu Ikhukhamba wabuna kusukela ukushisa

Akuzona zonke izifunda ezweni lakithi ezingaziqhenya ngokuba nesikhathi eside sezulu esifanele ukhukhamba okhulayo. Ngakho-ke, ukuze zikhule, zidinga izinga lokushisa lansuku zonke elingaphezu kuka-15 ° C. Uhlelo lwempande yamakhukhamba lukhula kahle kakhulu lapho inhlabathi ifudumala ifinyelela ku-20-25 ° C, futhi iningi lama-ovari livela ekushiseni kuka-25-30 ° C. Kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi lapho umoya ushisa ngaphezu kuka-35 ° C, impova yekhukhamba iba yinyumba.

Ngisho nokupholisa isikhathi esifushane kuze kufike ku-2-3 ° C kuholela ekufeni kwezitshalo, futhi uma izinga lokushisa lihlala ku-8-10 ° C izinsuku ezimbalwa, ukhukhamba uqala ukuhlushwa izifo eziningi. Ngakho-ke, uma isibikezelo sezulu singalungile, futhi ukhula ukhukhamba endaweni evulekile, umboze, ufake ama-arcs futhi umboze imivimbo nge-spunbond eqinile noma ifilimu. Ngobusuku obubanda kakhulu, hlinzeka ngeziqukathi zamanzi ashisayo ezibekwe emaphaseji. 

I-Parthenocarpic hybrids yamakhukhamba, akha izithelo ngaphandle kwempova, aphintshwa ngendlela ekhethekile. Kodwa kubalulekile ukuqiniseka ukuthi i-hybrid enjalo iphambi kwakho, ngaphandle kwalokho isitshalo singafa ngenxa yokunakekelwa okungafanele. Okokuqala, "phuphutheka" (cindezela ngemuva kweshidi lokuqala) imivimbo engu-4 eseceleni. Bese ushiya imivimbo ibe imitha, kodwa uyifinyeze ukuze ngayinye ingabi ne-ovary engaphezu kwe-1. Ku-50 cm olandelayo, shiya amaqanda ama-2 namaqabunga ama-2. Uma ihlumela elikhulu likhula lifika phezulu kwe-trellis, liyise endaweni evundlile ngokuligoqa izikhathi eziningana ocingweni lwe-trellis. Ngemuva kokuvela kwamahlumela angu-2-3 kule ngxenye evundlile, cindezela isiqu esikhulu. 

Ukunisela okungajwayelekile noma okwanele, kanye namanzi abandayo, okuvame ukubangela ukukhiqizwa kwe-cucurbitacin kumakhukhamba, into ebangela ukubaba. Ukuze ungafihli futhi ucwebe amakhukhamba amancane, gcina isitsha esinamanzi afudumele ahleliwe okunisela (25-28 ° C) silungile. Ukhukhamba kufanele uniselwe izikhathi ezingu-1-2 ngesonto, kuye ngesimo sezulu kanye nohlobo lwenhlabathi. Kuyinto efiselekayo ukuthi ihlale inomswakama ngokusesilinganisweni, ayiwomi, kodwa ayijiki ibe yixhaphozi.

Ungawenzi amakhukhamba aminyene

  • I-Geotextile - iyini futhi isetshenziswa kuphi

    I-Geotextiles isiphenduke insindiso yangempela kubahlali basehlobo. Ngenxa yalokhu kwaziswa, ukhula luyanyamalala futhi umkhiqizo uyanda.

     

  • Izifo eziyinhloko zamakhukhamba - izithombe, izincazelo nezindlela zokwelapha

    Noma yisiphi isifo kunzima ukwelapha ngaphandle kokuxilongwa okufanele. Lokhu kuyasebenza nakukhukhamba, izifo zazo zifana kakhulu nezimpawu, kodwa "imithi" esimweni ngasinye idinga okuhlukile.

     

Vikela ukhukhamba ezifweni nasezilokazaneni 

  • Ukondla ukhukhamba ngamakhambi abantu - 5 "ukusebenza" zokupheka

    Imaphi amakhambi abantu ukondla ukhukhamba phakathi nenkathi ukuze uvune isivuno esihle?

     

Vikela ukhukhamba wakho emoyeni 

Namanje awukaqiniseki uma udinga ukucofa ukhukhamba? Impendulo yethu inguyebo! Futhi iphuzu alikona nje kuphela ukuthi ukhukhamba okhula ngokungalawuleki angashintsha indawo yakho yokushisa ibe yihlathi, kodwa futhi ukuthi akukho lutho oluzuzisayo kulezi zihlahla. Phela, amahlumela ezinsikazi lapho izithelo zikhula khona akhula kuphela ezingxenyeni ezisemaceleni zesitshalo. Kodwa nje ukusika konke okungeziwe (ngokubona kwakho) imivimbo namaqabunga nakho akusizi futhi kuyingozi, ngakho-ke ngaphambi kokuba uqale ukugoqa ukhukhamba, udinga ukuqonda ukuthi hlobo luni lwezinhlobonhlobo oluphambi kwakho. 

  • ukuntuleka kwe-nitrogen - isihloko sekhukhamba sikhula silula, sincane futhi sigobile;

I-Powdery mildew kanye ne-downy mildew, i-mosaic kanye nokubola kwezimpande - ukhukhamba anezifo eziningi ezithinta izitshalo ku-greenhouse ikakhulukazi ngokushesha. Eziningi zazo kulula ukuzinqanda kunokwelapha, ngakho-ke hlala ugqokisa imbewu noma uyithenge kakade, khipha amagciwane njalo (okungenani kanye ngesizini), susa yonke imfucumfucu yezitshalo, fafaza izitshalo ngengxube ye-Bordeaux engu-1% bese ukhetha izinhlobo nezinhlobonhlobo. ama-hybrids amelana nezifo eziningi. 

Ukuze ukhukhamba abe namanzi, amnandi, futhi athele izithelo isikhathi eside, awudingi ukukhetha kuphela imbewu yekhwalithi ephezulu, kodwa futhi nokunakekela izihlahla ngokuqhubekayo. Ukugqoka okuphezulu, ukuncinza, ukuchelela - awukwazi ukukhumbula yonke into, ngakho-ke sikuhlanganisele "ishidi lokukhohlisa" lekhukhamba.

Ukuze izithelo zamakhukhamba zilingane futhi zibe zinhle, kuyadingeka ukwethula ukugqoka okuphezulu enhlabathini ngesikhathi esifanele futhi kushintshwe ngama-foliar izikhathi eziningana phakathi nenkathi. Ukuze wenze lokhu, uzodinga izinto eziphilayo (kudingeka ukufaka umquba obolile noma umquba emhlabathini ngaphambi kokutshala ukhukhamba) kanye nomanyolo okhethekile wamakhukhamba (Sudarushka, Velikan, Agricola, BioMaster, njll.). Ungawashintsha ngamakhambi esintu okondla ukhukhamba.

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ukhula ukhukhamba ku-greenhouse noma endaweni evulekile, isihlahla ngasinye sizodinga isikhala esiningi. Ngokuvamile izithombo ezitshalwe noma imbewu ehlwanyelwe kakhulu izoholela eqinisweni lokuthi izitshalo zizophazamisana, zilwele ukukhanya nomswakama, zihlangane futhi ekugcineni zichithe amandla kunoma yini ngaphandle kwe-fruiting.

Vuna Ukhukhamba Ngokucophelela 

Qaphela izinga lokushisa

Okokuqala, gxila endaweni yokulima. Uma une-greenhouse noma i-greenhouse, khetha izinhlobonhlobo nama-hybrids we-greenhouses, uhlela ukuwatshala emagqumeni - endaweni evulekile. Okwesibili, ungalondolozi embewini bese ukhetha ukhukhamba amelana nezifo ezivamile futhi angathandi ukufutheka. Njengomthetho, lezi ziyi-hybrids, isibonelo, i- Gerasim F1, i-Garland F1, i-Doka F1, i-Mumu F1, i-Khorovod F1 , njll. Futhi ekugcineni, musa ukujaha ugongolo nzalo. Yebo, zibukeka zimangalisa, futhi zinganikeza isivuno esicebile, kodwa ngesikhathi esifanayo zingenangqondo kakhulu. Uma ungawaphuzi futhi uwaphakele ngokoqobo "ngewashi", khona-ke esikhundleni sama-bunches amaningi uzothola ama-ovari omisiwe.

Uma ukhula ukhukhamba onempova yezinyosi, bese ubopha ihlumela eliphakathi, ulicinde lapho lifinyelela isigamu semitha ukuphakama, susa ngokuphelele wonke amahlumela asemaceleni kuma-axils amaqabunga angama-3-4 aphansi, futhi ufinyeze amapheya amabili alandelayo ukuze 20 cm, futhi ufinyeze amahlumela aseceleni akhiwe ngaphezu kwawo abe ngu-50-60 cm.

  • ukuntuleka kokudla okunomsoco - izinhlobonhlobo zamakhukhamba zichitha amanye ama-ovari;

Ukumboza i-cucumber ridge ngotshani


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