Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol - Biography. kafushane ngomndeni

Ngisho nokukhumbula bonke abalobi ababambe iqhaza ekuthuthukisweni kwezincwadi zesiRashiya, kunzima ukuthola umuntu ongaqondakali kunoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. I-biography efingqiwe kulesi sihloko izosiza ukuthola umqondo othile wobuntu bengcweti. Ngakho-ke, yimiphi imininingwane enelukuluku eyaziwayo mayelana nendlela yokuphila eyahanjwa umdali, umndeni wakhe, nezincwadi ezilotshiwe?

Ubaba nomama kaGogol

Yiqiniso, bonke abalandeli bomsebenzi womlobi bangathanda ukuba nombono mayelana nomndeni azalelwa kuwo. Igama likamama kaGogol kwakunguMaria, intombazane yayivela emndenini owaziwa kancane wabanini bomhlaba. Ngokusho kwenganekwane, kwakungasekho ntokazi enhle esifundeni sasePoltava. Washada noyise womlobi odumile eneminyaka engu-14, wazala izingane ezingu-12, ezinye zazo zashona zisencane. U-Nikolai waba ingane yakhe yesithathu futhi waba ngowokuqala ukusinda. Izikhumbuzo zabantu ababephila ngaleso sikhathi zithi uMariya wayengowesifazane okholwayo, ezama ngenkuthalo ukugxilisa uthando ngoNkulunkulu ezinganeni zakhe.

I-biography ka-nikolai vasilievich gogol kafushane

Kuyathakazelisa futhi ukuthi ubani owaba nguyise womuntu omangalisayo njengoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. Umlando ofingqiwe kulokhu okuqukethwe awukwazi ukuhluleka ukumkhuluma. U-Vasily Yanovsky-Gogol iminyaka eminingi wayesebenza eposini, wakhuphukela esikhundleni somhloli wekolishi. Kuyaziwa ukuthi wayethanda izwe lobuciko bemilingo, waze waqamba nezinkondlo, okuthi, ngeshwa, azizange zigcinwe. Kungenzeka ukuthi ikhono lendodana lokubhala latholwa nguyise.

Umlando wombhali

Abalandeli be-genius banesithakazelo lapho futhi nini u-Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol wazalwa. I-biography, enikezwe kafushane kulesi sihloko, ithi izwe lakubo yisifundazwe sasePoltava. Umntwana womfana, owazalwa ngo-1809, wadlula edolobhaneni laseSorochintsy. Imfundo yakhe yaqala ePoltava School, yabe iqhubeka eNizhyn Gymnasium. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi umbhali ubengeke abizwe ngomfundi okhuthele. UGogol wabonisa isithakazelo ikakhulukazi ezincwadini zesiRashiya, wazuza impumelelo ethile ekudwebeni.

amaqiniso athakazelisayo nge-gogol

U-Nikolai waqala ukubhala esemncane, kodwa indalo yakhe yokuqala ayikwazanga ukubizwa ngokuthi iphumelele. Isimo sashintsha lapho ethuthela eSt. Petersburg, kakade esengumfana omdala. Kwaphela isikhathi esithile uGogol ezama ukuzuza ukuqashelwa njengomdlali, wenza esiteji senye yemidlalo yaseshashalazini yaseSt. Nokho, njengoba ehlulekile, wagxila ngokuphelele ekubhaleni. By the way, eminyakeni embalwa kamuva wakwazi ukuduma ensimini yaseshashalazini, esebenza njengombhali wemidlalo.

Imuphi umsebenzi owavumela umuntu onjengoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol ukuba azimemezele njengomlobi? I-biography, efingqiwe kule ndaba, ithi kwakuyindaba ethi "Kusihlwa ngobusuku buka-Ivan Kupala." Ekuqaleni, le ndaba yayinesihloko esihlukile, kodwa abashicileli, ngaphambi kokushicilelwa, ngenxa yezizathu ezingaziwa, bacela ukuyishintsha.

Imisebenzi ephawulekayo

"Imiphefumulo Efile" iyinkondlo okunzima ukucabanga ngayo izincwadi zesiRashiya, umsebenzi ufakwe ohlelweni lwezifundo zesikole. Umlobi kuyo ubheka izwe lakubo njengezwe elihlushwa ukufunjathiswa, elicwile ebubini, elimpofu ngokomoya. Yiqiniso, ibikezela ukuvuselelwa okungaqondakali koMbuso WaseRussia. Ngokuthakazelisayo, kwakungemva kokubhalwa kwale nkondlo lapho uN.V. Gogol efa khona.

umama gogo

"I-Taras Bulba" iyindaba yomlando, ukudalwa kwayo okwaphefumulelwa izenzakalo zangempela zekhulu le-15-17 ezenzeka endaweni yase-Ukraine. Umsebenzi awuthakazelisi kuphela ezindabeni zokuziphatha eziphakamisayo, kodwa futhi nencazelo eningiliziwe yempilo yeZaporizhzhya Cossacks.

I-"Viy" imema abafundi ukuba bangene ezinganekwaneni zamaSlav asendulo, ukwazi umhlaba owakhiwe izidalwa ezingaqondakali, ubavumela ukuba besabe futhi banqobe ukwesaba kwabo. Umhloli Jikelele uhleka usulu indlela yokuphila yehhovisi lesifundazwe, ububi obutholakala kubameleli baso. I-"The Nose" yindaba emnandi emayelana nokuziqhenya okukhulu nokuziphindiselela ngayo.

Ukufa kombhali

Akekho umuntu odumile ukufa kwakhe kuzungezwe inqwaba yezimfihlakalo nokuqagela. Kungokufa lapho kuxhunyaniswa khona amaqiniso amaningi athakazelisayo ngoGogol, ahlupha ababhali bokuphila kwabantu.

ukufa n egogol

Abanye abacwaningi baphikelela ngokuthi u-Nikolai Vasilievich wazibulala esebenzisa ushevu. Abanye baphikisa ngokuthi ukufa kwakhe esemncane kwakubangelwa ukukhathala komzimba okuhambisana nokuzila ukudla okuningi. Kanti abanye baphikelela ngokuthi ukufa kukaGogol kwabangelwa ukuphathwa kabi kwe-meningitis. Kukhona nabaqinisekisayo ukuthi umbhali wangcwatshwa ephila, esephusheni elibuhlungu. Ayikho imibono eye yafakazelwa.

Kuyaziwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi phakathi neminyaka engu-20 yokugcina yokuphila kwakhe umlobi wahlushwa yi-manic-depressive psychosis, kodwa wagwema ukuya odokotela. UGogol wafa ngo-1852.

Amaqiniso anelukuluku

U-Nikolai Vasilyevich wayehlukaniswa ngamahloni amakhulu. Kwaze kwafika lapho uhlakanipho ephuma egunjini, umbundu walo weqe umuntu angamazi. Kukholelwa ukuthi umdali washiya leli zwe ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa ubumsulwa bakhe, akazange abe nobuhlobo bothando nowesifazane. UGogol wayengenelisekile kakhulu ngokubukeka kwakhe, ikhala lakhe labangela ukucasuka okuthile. Ngokusobala, lesi sitho somzimba sasimkhathaza ngempela, njengoba waze wayiqamba le ndaba ngokumhlonipha. Kuyaziwa nokuthi ngesikhathi eshutha izithombe ubephoqa abaculi ukuthi bashintshe ukubonakala kwekhala lakhe.

Amaqiniso athakazelisayo ngoGogol axhumene hhayi kuphela nokubukeka kwakhe nokuziphatha, kodwa futhi nomsebenzi wakhe. Ababhali bomlando wokuphila komuntu bakholelwa ukuthi kwakukhona umqulu wesibili othi "Imiphefumulo Efile", umlobi owabhubhisa mathupha ngaphambi nje kokufa kwakhe. Kuyathakazelisa futhi ukuthi itulo lika-Inspector General laphakanyiswa kuye nguPushkin ngokwakhe, ukwabelana ngendaba ethakazelisayo yokuphila kwakhe.

Ukuphila kuka-Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol kukhulu kakhulu futhi kunezici eziningi kangangokuthi izazi-mlando zisacwaninga nge-biography kanye nezincwadi ze-epistolary zomlobi omkhulu, futhi abenzi befilimu benza amafilimu akhuluma ngezimfihlo zobuhlakani obuyimfihlakalo bezincwadi. Intshisekelo kumbhali wemidlalo yeshashalazi ayizange iphele iminyaka engamakhulu amabili, hhayi nje ngenxa yemisebenzi yakhe emnandi, kodwa futhi ngoba uGogol ungomunye wezibalo ezingaqondakali kakhulu ezincwadini zesiRashiya zekhulu le-19.

Ubuntwana nobusha

Kuze kube yilolu suku, akwaziwa ukuthi uNikolai Vasilyevich wazalwa nini. Abanye ababhali bemilando bakholelwa ukuthi uGogol wazalwa ngoMashi 20, kanti abanye bayaqiniseka ukuthi usuku lweqiniso lokuzalwa kombhali ngu-April 1, 1809.

Isithombe sika-Nikolai Gogol
Isithombe sika-Nikolai Gogol

Ubuntwana benkosi ye-phantasmagoria yadlula e-Ukraine, edolobhaneni elihle laseSorochintsy, esifundazweni sasePoltava. Wakhulela emndenini omkhulu - ngaphezu kwakhe, abafana abangu-5 namantombazane angu-6 bakhuliswa ekhaya (abanye babo bafa beseyizinsana).

Umlobi omkhulu unohlu lozalo oluthakazelisayo olubuyela emuva ku-Cossack yobukhosi obuhloniphekile bukaGogol-Yanovsky. Ngokusho kwenganekwane yomndeni, umkhulu womdlali we-playwright u-Athanasius Demyanovich Yanovsky wanezela ingxenye yesibili yesibongo sakhe ukuze afakazele ubuhlobo begazi no-Cossack hetman u-Ostap Gogol, owaphila ngekhulu le-17.

Vasily Afanasevich, uyise Nikolai Gogol
Vasily Afanasevich, uyise Nikolai Gogol

Ubaba wombhali, u-Vasily Afanasevich, wasebenza eposini esifundazweni sase-Little Russian, lapho athatha khona umhlalaphansi ngo-1805 ngesikhundla somhloli we-collegiate. Kamuva, uGogol-Yanovsky washiya indawo yaseVasilievka (Yanovshchina) futhi waqala ukulima. U-Vasily Afanasevich wayaziwa ngokuthi imbongi, umlobi nombhali wemidlalo yeshashalazi: wayenenkundla yemidlalo yaseshashalazini yomngane wakhe uTroshchinsky, futhi wadlala esiteji njengomdlali.

Emikhiqizweni, wabhala imidlalo yamahlaya esuselwe kuma-ballads abantu base-Ukraine nezinganekwane. Kodwa umsebenzi owodwa kuphela kaGogol Sr. ofinyelele kubafundi besimanje - "I-Simpleton, noma Ubuqili Bowesifazane Ohlulwe Isosha." Kwakuvela kuyise ukuthi u-Nikolai Vasilyevich wamukela uthando lwakhe lobuciko bokubhala kanye nethalente lokudala: kuyaziwa ukuthi uGogol Jr. waqala ukubhala izinkondlo kusukela ebuntwaneni. U-Vasily Afanasyevich wafa lapho u-Nikolai eneminyaka engu-15 ubudala.

UMaria Ivanovna, unina kaNikolai Gogol
UMaria Ivanovna, unina kaNikolai Gogol

Umama womlobi, uMaria Ivanovna, u-nee Kosyarovskaya, ngokusho kwabantu besikhathi sakhe, wayemuhle futhi wayebhekwa njengobuhle bokuqala kuleli dolobhana. Wonke umuntu owayemazi wayethi ungumuntu othanda inkolo futhi wayematasa efundisa izingane izinto ezingokomoya. Kodwa-ke, izimfundiso zikaGogol-Yanovskaya azizange zehliselwe emikhosini yobuKristu nemithandazo, kodwa eziprofethweni mayelana noKwahlulelwa Kokugcina.

Kuyaziwa ukuthi owesifazane washada Gogol-Yanovsky lapho eneminyaka engu-14 ubudala. U-Nikolai Vasilyevich wayesondelene nonina futhi waze wacela iseluleko ngemibhalo yakhe yesandla. Abanye ababhali bakholelwa ukuthi ngenxa kaMaria Ivanovna, umsebenzi kaGogol unikezwe ifantasy nemfihlakalo.

Ikhaya lezingane likaNikolai Gogol
Ikhaya lezingane likaNikolai Gogol

Ubuntwana nobusha buka-Nikolai Vasilievich badlula phakathi kwempilo yabantu abampofu kanye ne-squire futhi banikezwa lezo zici zonxiwankulu ezichazwe ngokucophelela umbhali wemidlalo yeshashalazi emisebenzini yakhe.

Lapho u-Nikolai eneminyaka eyishumi ubudala, wathunyelwa ePoltava, lapho afunda khona isayensi esikoleni, wabe esefunda ukufunda nokubhala nothisha wendawo uGabriel Sorochinsky. Ngemva kokuqeqeshwa kwakudala, umfana oneminyaka engu-16 ubudala waba umfundi e-Gymnasium of Higher Sciences edolobheni laseNizhyn, esifundeni saseChernihiv. Ngaphezu kokuthi i-classic yesikhathi esizayo yezincwadi yayinempilo ebuthaka, wayengenamandla ezifundweni zakhe, nakuba wayenenkumbulo engavamile. U-Nicholas akazange ahlangane kahle nesayensi, kodwa waphumelela kakhulu ezincwadini nasezincwadini zesiRashiya.

Nikolay Gogol
Nikolay Gogol

Abanye ababhali bomlando wokuphila kwabantu baphikisa ngokuthi i-gymnasium ngokwayo inecala ngemfundo ephansi kangaka, kunombhali osemusha. Iqiniso liwukuthi ngaleyo minyaka, othisha ababuthakathaka basebenza e-gymnasium yaseNizhyn, abangakwazi ukuhlela imfundo ehloniphekile yabafundi. Ngokwesibonelo, ulwazi olusezifundweni zemfundo yokuziphatha aluzange lunikezwe ngezimfundiso zezazi zefilosofi ezivelele, kodwa ngosizo lokushaywa ngenduku, uthisha wezincwadi akazange ahambisane nezikhathi, ekhetha ezakudala zekhulu le-18. I-Pushkin.

Phakathi nezifundo zakhe, u-Gogol wadonsela ekuqambeni futhi wahlanganyela ngentshiseko emikhiqizweni yaseshashalazini kanye namaskithi angenayo i-impromptu. Phakathi kwabalingani bakhe, u-Nikolai Vasilyevich wayaziwa njengosomahlaya nomuntu onamahloni. Umbhali wakhuluma Nikolai Prokopovich, Alexander Danilevsky, Nestor Kukolnik nabanye.

Izincwadi

UGogol waqala ukuba nesithakazelo sokubhala njengomfundi. Wayethanda u-A.S. I-Pushkin, nakuba indalo yakhe yokuqala yayikude nesitayela sembongi enkulu, kodwa njengemisebenzi ka-Bestuzhev-Marlinsky.

Pushkin futhi Gogol.  Umdwebo we-Academician M.P.  Klodt
Pushkin futhi Gogol. Umdwebo we-Academician M.P. Klodt

Waqamba ama-elegies, ama-feuilletons, izinkondlo, wazama ngokwakhe ku-prose nezinye izinhlobo zemibhalo. Phakathi nezifundo zakhe, wabhala ukubhuqa "Into ethile mayelana neNizhyn, noma umthetho awubhalelwanga iziwula", ongazange uphile kuze kube yilolu suku. Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi le nsizwa ekuqaleni yayibheka ukulangazelela ubuciko njengento yokuzilibazisa, hhayi indaba yempilo yayo yonke.

Ukubhala kwakungokukaGogol “umsebe wokukhanya endaweni emnyama” futhi kwasiza ekuphunyukeni ekucindezelekeni kwengqondo. Khona-ke izinhlelo zika-Nikolai Vasilyevich zazingakacaci, kodwa wayefuna ukukhonza i-Motherland futhi abe usizo kubantu, ekholelwa ukuthi wayelindelwe ikusasa elikhulu.

Izincwadi zikaNikolai Gogol
Izincwadi zikaNikolai Gogol

Ebusika 1828, Gogol waya enhlokodolobha yamasiko - Petersburg. Edolobheni elibandayo nelimnyama likaNikolai Vasilyevich, ukudumala kwakulindelwe. Wazama ukuba isikhulu, futhi wazama ukungena enkonzweni yaseshashalazini, kodwa yonke imizamo yakhe yanqotshwa. Ezincwadini kuphela ayengathola amathuba okuthola imali nokuziveza.

Kodwa ukwehluleka kwakulindelwe u-Nikolai Vasilyevich ngokubhala, njengoba izincwadi ezimbili kuphela zikaGogol zanyatheliswa omagazini - inkondlo ethi "Italy" kanye nenkondlo yothando ethi "Hanz Kühelgarten", eyanyatheliswa ngaphansi kwegama elithi V. Alov. "I-Idyll Ezithombeni" ithole izibuyekezo eziningi ezingezinhle nezihlekisayo ezivela kubagxeki. Ngemva kokunqotshwa kokudala, uGogol wathenga zonke izinguqulo zenkondlo futhi wazishisa ekamelweni lakhe. U-Nikolai Vasilievich akazange alahle izincwadi ngisho nangemva kokwehluleka okukhulu; ukwehluleka nge "Hanz Kuchelgarten" kwamnika ithuba lokushintsha uhlobo.

Umfanekiso wendaba ka-Nikolai Gogol ethi "Ntambama epulazini eduze kwase-Dikanka"
Umfanekiso wendaba ka-Nikolai Gogol ethi "Ntambama epulazini eduze kwase-Dikanka"

Ngo-1830, indaba engaqondakali kaGogol ethi "The Evening on the Eve of Ivan Kupala" yanyatheliswa kumagazini ovelele i-Otechestvennye Zapiski.

Kamuva, umlobi uhlangana noBaron Delvig futhi uqala ukushicilela ezincwadini zakhe ze-Literary Gazette kanye ne-Northern Flowers.

Ngemva kwempumelelo yakhe yokudala, uGogol wamukelwa ngokufudumele embuthanweni wezincwadi. Waqala ukuxhumana noPushkin noZhukovsky. Imisebenzi ethi "Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka", "The Night Before Christmas", "The Enchanted Place", enongwe ngengxubevange yama-epic e-Ukraine namahlaya ezwe, yahlaba umxhwele imbongi yaseRussia.

U-Nikolai Gogol, u-Alexander Pushkin noVasily Zhukovsky
U-Nikolai Gogol, u-Alexander Pushkin noVasily Zhukovsky

Amahemuhemu athi kwakungu-Alexander Sergeevich owanikeza uNikolai Vasilyevich isizinda semisebenzi emisha. Uphakamise imibono yetulo lenkondlo ethi Dead Souls (1842) kanye namahlaya athi Umhloli Jikelele (1836). Nokho, uP.V. U-Annenkov ukholelwa ukuthi uPushkin "akazange amnike impahla yakhe ngokuzithandela."

Ehlatshwe umxhwele umlando we-Little Russia, u-Nikolai Vasilyevich uba umbhali weqoqo le-Mirgorod, elihlanganisa imisebenzi eminingana, kuhlanganise ne-Taras Bulba. UGogol, ebhalela unina uMaria Ivanovna, wamcela ukuba amtshele kabanzi mayelana nokuphila kwabantu basemaphandleni.

Uhlaka lwefilimu ethi "Viy", 2014
Uhlaka lwefilimu ethi "Viy", 2014

Ngo-1835, indaba kaGogol ethi "Viy" (efakwe ku-"Mirgorod") mayelana nomlingisi wamademoni we-epic yaseRussia yanyatheliswa. Ngokwalolu daba kuthiwa ama- bursak amathathu adukile afica ipulazi okungaqondakali ukuthi umnikazi walo ubengumthakathi wangempela. Umlingiswa oyinhloko u-Homa kuzodingeka abhekane nezidalwa ezingakaze zibonwe ngaphambili, amasiko esonto kanye nomthakathi ondiza ngebhokisi.

Ngo-1967, abaqondisi u-Konstantin Ershov noGeorgy Kropachev badlala ifilimu yokuqala ye-Soviet horror esekelwe endabeni kaGogol Viy. Izindima eziyinhloko zadlalwa nguLeonid Kuravlev noNatalia Varley.

ULeonid Kuravlev noNatalia Varley efilimini ethi "Viy", ngo-1967
ULeonid Kuravlev noNatalia Varley efilimini ethi "Viy", ngo-1967

Ngo-1841, uGogol wabhala indaba yokungafi ethi "Ijazi elingaphezulu". Emsebenzini, u-Nikolai Vasilievich ukhuluma "ngendoda encane" u-Akaki Akakievich Bashmachkin, ompofu kakhulu kangangokuthi into evamile kakhulu iba umthombo wenjabulo nogqozi kuye.

Impilo yomuntu siqu

Ekhuluma ngobuntu bombhali we-Inspector General, kuyaphawuleka ukuthi kusukela kuVasily Afanasievich, ngaphezu kokulangazelela izincwadi, naye wazuza isiphetho esibulalayo - ukugula kwengqondo nokwesaba ukufa kusenesikhathi, okwaqala ukuzibonakalisa. umbhali wemidlalo kusukela ebusheni bakhe. Umshicileli u-V.G. wabhala ngalokhu. I-Korolenko kanye noDkt. Bazhenov, ngokusekelwe ezintweni ze-autobiographical zikaGogol kanye namagugu e-epistolary.

U-Nikolai Gogol wayengumuntu onamahloni
U-Nikolai Gogol wayengumuntu onamahloni

Uma ezinsukwini zeSoviet Union kwakuyisiko ukuthula mayelana nokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kukaNikolai Vasilyevich, khona-ke imininingwane enjalo iyathakazelisa kakhulu kumfundi wamanje we-erudite. Kukholakala ukuthi uGogol waphathwa yi-manic-depressive psychosis (i-bipolar affective personality disorder) kusukela ebuntwaneni: isimo sengqondo sokwenama kanye ne-perky sombhali sathathelwa indawo ukucindezeleka okukhulu, i-hypochondria kanye nokuphelelwa ithemba.

Lokhu kwawuphazamisa umqondo wakhe kwaze kwaba sekufeni kwakhe. Ubuye wavuma ngezincwadi ukuthi uvamise ukuzwa amazwi “adangele” embiza kude. Ngenxa yokuphila ngokwesaba okuphakade, uGogol waba umuntu othanda inkolo futhi waphila ukuphila kokuzincisha injabulo. Wayethanda abesifazane, kodwa kude kuphela: wayevame ukutshela Maria Ivanovna ukuthi uya phesheya ukuyohlala nowesifazane othile.

U-Nikolai Gogol wayebhalelana namantombazane ahlukene
U-Nikolai Gogol wayebhalelana namantombazane ahlukene

Wayebhalelana namantombazane athandekayo amakilasi ahlukene (noMaria Balabina, u-Countess Anna Vielgorskaya nabanye), ethandana nabo futhi enamahloni. Umbhali akathandanga ukukhangisa impilo yakhe, ikakhulukazi izindaba zothando. Kuyaziwa ukuthi u-Nikolai Vasilyevich akanazo izingane. Ngenxa yokuthi umbhali ubengashadile, kunombono mayelana nobutabane bakhe. Abanye bakholelwa ukuthi akakaze abe nobuhlobo obudlulele ngale kwe-platonic.

Ukufa

Ukufa kokuqala kukaNikolai Vasilievich eneminyaka engu-42 kusakhathaza izingqondo zososayensi, izazi-mlando kanye nomlobi wokuphila. Izinganekwane ezingaqondakali zakhiwe ngoGogol, futhi kuze kube namuhla ziphikisana ngesizathu sangempela sokufa komboni.

Isikhumbuzo sikaNikolai Gogol ePoltava
Isikhumbuzo sikaNikolai Gogol ePoltava

Eminyakeni yokugcina yokuphila kwakhe, u-Nikolai Vasilyevich wabanjwa yinkinga yokudala. Kwakuhlotshaniswa nokuhamba kwangaphambi kwesikhathi empilweni yomkaKhomyakov kanye nokulahlwa kwezindaba zakhe ngu-Archpriest Matthew Konstantinovsky, owagxeka kakhulu imisebenzi kaGogol futhi ekholelwa ukuthi umlobi wayengenalo ukholo ngokwanele. Imicabango edangele yathatha ingqondo yombhali wemidlalo yeshashalazi; kusukela ngoFebhuwari 5, wenqaba ukudla. Ngo-February 10, u-Nikolai Vasilievich "ngaphansi kwethonya lomoya omubi" washisa imibhalo yesandla, futhi ngo-18, ngenkathi eqhubeka nokugcina i-Great Lent, walala ngokuwohloka okukhulu kwempilo.

U-Nikolai Gogol embhedeni wakhe wokufa
U-Nikolai Gogol embhedeni wakhe wokufa

Umphathi wepeni wenqaba ukwelashwa, elindele ukufa. Odokotela, abamthola ukuthi unesifo samathumbu esivuthayo, i-typhus engenzeka kanye nokuqunjelwa, ekugcineni bathole ukuthi umlobi une-meningitis futhi wanquma ukuchithwa kwegazi okuphoqelekile, okuyingozi empilweni yakhe, okwenza isimo sengqondo sikaNikolai Vasilyevich sibe sibi nakakhulu. Ekuseni ngoFebhuwari 21, 1852, uGogol washona endlini ka-Count Tolstoy eMoscow.

Inkumbulo

Izincwadi zombhali ziyisibopho sokufunda ezikoleni nasezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme. Esikhumbuzweni sikaNikolai Vasilyevich, izitembu zokuposa zakhishwa e-USSR nakwamanye amazwe. Imigwaqo, inkundla yemidlalo yaseshashalazini, isikhungo sokufundisa kanye ne-crater emhlabeni iMercury ziqanjwe ngoGogol.

Ngokusho kokudalwe kwengcweti ye-hyperbole kanye ne-grotesque, imidlalo yaseshashalazini isakhiwa futhi nemisebenzi yobuciko be-cinematographic iyaqoshwa. Ngakho-ke, ngo-2017, i-Premiere yochungechunge lwe-gothic detective "Gogol. Isiqalo" no-Alexander Petrov no-Oleg Menshikov ezindimeni eziholayo.

Amaqiniso Athakazelisayo

Kunamaqiniso athakazelisayo kumlando wombhali wemidlalo yeshashalazi ongaqondakali, wonke lawo angeke achazwe ngisho nakuyo yonke incwadi.

  • Ngokusho kwamahemuhemu, uGogol wayesaba ukuduma kwezulu, njengoba into engokwemvelo yathinta ingqondo yakhe.
  • Umbhali wayephila ngobumpofu, ehamba egqoke izingubo ezindala. Okuwukuphela kwento ebizayo ekhabetheni lakhe iwashi legolide elinikelwe nguZhukovsky ekhumbula uPushkin.
  • Unina Nikolai Vasilyevich wayaziwa ngokuthi owesifazane ongaziwa. Wayekholelwa ezeni, ekholelwa kumandla angaphezu kwawemvelo, futhi ehlala exoxa izindaba ezimangalisayo, ezihlotshiswe ngezinganekwane.
  • Ngokusho kwamahemuhemu, amazwi okugcina kaGogol athi: "Kumnandi kangakanani ukufa."
Isikhumbuzo sikaNikolai Gogol e-Odessa
Isikhumbuzo sikaNikolai Gogol nenyoni yakhe ye-troika e-Odessa
  • Umsebenzi kaGogol waphefumulela uMikhail Bulgakov.
  • U-Nikolai Vasilyevich wayethanda amaswidi, ngakho amaswidi nezingcezu zikashukela zazihlale zisephaketheni lakhe. Futhi, umbhali waseRussia we-prose wayethanda ukugoqa imvuthuluka yesinkwa ezandleni zakhe - kwasiza ukugxila emicabangweni.
  • Umlobi wayekhathazeke kabuhlungu ngokubukeka, ikakhulukazi ikhala lakhe lalimcasula.
  • UGogol wayesaba ukuthi uzongcwatshwa, ephusheni elibuhlungu. Ungqondongqondo wezincwadi wabuza ukuthi esikhathini esizayo isidumbu sakhe singcwatshwe kuphela ngemva kokuvela kwamabala e-cadaveric. Ngokusho kwenganekwane, uGogol wavuka ebhokisini lomngcwabo. Lapho isidumbu somlobi singcwatshwa kabusha, ababekhona, bamangala, babona ikhanda likamufi libheke ohlangothini olulodwa.

I-Bibliography

  • "Kusihlwa epulazini eduze kwaseDikanka" (1831-1832)
  • "Indaba yokuthi u-Ivan Ivanovich waxabana kanjani no-Ivan Nikiforovich" (1834)
  • "Viy" (1835)
  • "Abanikazi Bomhlaba Omdala" (1835)
  • "Taras Bulba" (1835)
  • "Nevsky Prospekt" (1835)
  • "Umhloli" (1836)
  • "Ikhala" (1836)
  • "Amanothi Ohlanya" (1835)
  • "Isithombe" (1835)
  • "Imoto" (1836)
  • "Umshado" (1842)
  • "Imiphefumulo Efile" (1842)
  • "Ijazi" (1843)

Maphakathi nekhulu le-19, uvakashela eJerusalema, futhi eduze kwethuna leNkosi ucela ugqozi eNkosini. UGogol washisa ivolumu yesibili ye-Dead Souls. Lokhu kwenzeka kusukela ngo-February 11 kuya ku-February 12, 1852, futhi ngemva kwezinsuku eziyishumi kuphela, umbhali wezincwadi eziningi ezimangalisayo wafa (February 21 (March 4)). Umcimbi womngcwabo ubuhanjelwe yizinkulungwane zabalandeli bomsebenzi wakhe. 

Ngemva kokuhlangana noPushkin, Zhukovsky, ucabanga ngokungathí sina ngomsebenzi womlobi. Ngo-1831-1832. kunyatheliswe umsebenzi othi "Evenings on a Farm eduze kwaseDikanka", futhi lapho ingxenye yesibili iphuma, u-Nikolai Vasilyevich uyathandwa. 

Ekupheleni komsebenzi wakhe, umlobi ubhekene nenkinga yokudala. Ushisa ivolumu yesibili ye-Dead Souls futhi ngokushesha, ngo-1852, uyafa.

UGogol N.V. (04/01/1809) wazalelwa esifundazweni Poltava emndenini womndeni hhayi ophumelelayo. Abazali baka-Nikolai Vasilyevich babengabanikazi bomhlaba futhi bamfunela imfundo ehloniphekile, ayithola e-Nizhyn Gymnasium. Ebusheni, umlobi osemusha wabonisa amathalenta ahlukahlukene, kuhlanganise nezincwadi. 

Ngemva kokuthuthela eSt. Petersburg, umlobi osemusha wakhonza njengesikhulu, wazama isandla sakhe ekulingiseni, kodwa isikhathi esiningi wayematasa emsebenzini wokubhala. Ngo-1831 wajwayelana A. S. Pushkin. Lo mhlangano waba yingqophamlando empilweni yakhe. 

Naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi uGogol wayeziqaphela njalo njengomlobi waseRussia, emisebenzini yakhe wembula ngokuphindaphindiwe isithombe sase-Ukraine, wagcizelela ubuhle bemvelo, wakhazimulisa ngobunkondlo ubuzwe bawo. Kwanele ukukhumbula imisebenzi edumile efana "May Night", "The Night Ngaphambi Christmas", "Sorochinsky Fair", njll. 

Emisebenzini eminingi yomlobi, ephumelela kakhulu ingabizwa ngokuthi: "Kusihlwa epulazini eliseduze neDikanka", "Ikhala", "Amanothi Ohlanya", "Overcoat", "Inspector", kanye "Nemiphefumulo Efile". UGogol wasebenza emsebenzini wakhe wokugcina wokubhala phesheya. 

Imfundo yakhe yaqala esikoleni sesifunda sasePoltava, futhi kamuva wangena e-gymnasium yaseNizhyn. Umbhali osemusha uphupha ngokuba ngummeli, kodwa akayeki ukuthanda izincwadi. Unayo nentshisekelo yokulingisa. 

Umbhalo wokuqala owaqashelwa phakathi komfundi omkhulu, umsebenzi obuyekeziwe othi "Basavryuk" manje owaziwa ngokuthi "Evening on the Eve of Ivan Kupala". 

UGogol wathuthela eSt. Petersburg ngo-1828 futhi ngokushesha wanyatheliswa ngaphansi kwegama elingelona iqiniso elithi V. Aloev. Kodwa-ke, imisebenzi yokuqala ayiphumelelanga ngabafundi. Lapho waphinde wahlangana no-A.S. I-Pushkin. Lo mhlangano uphenduke waba yinhlekelele kumbhali osemusha futhi wadlala indima enkulu esiphethweni sakhe. 

Inombolo yokukhetha 3

Umbhali wahamba kakhulu. Wavakashela e-Italy, eJalimane, eFrance, eSwitzerland. Ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe, u-Nikolai Vasilievich wabhekana nenkinga yokudala. Mhlawumbe leli qiniso kwaba umfutho wokushiswa komqulu wesibili we-Dead Souls. UGogol wafa ngoFebhuwari 21, 1852. 

UGogol wazalelwa edolobhaneni laseBolshie Sorochintsy, esifundeni saseMirgorod, ngo-1809 (April 1 (March 20)). U-Nikolai Vasilievich wazalelwa emndenini wezincwadi. Abazali bakhe kwakunguVasily Afanasevich noMaria Ivanovna.

UGogol ungumntwana wesithathu womndeni omkhulu, kodwa naphezu kwalokhu, ukuvumelana nothando lobuhle kwakuhlale kubusa endlini. U-Kolya wachitha ubuntwana bakhe efa. Lapho, waqala ukubhala izinkondlo zakhe zokuqala. 

Biography Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol ngesifinyezo

Biography esifushanisiwe Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol

Izibonelo ze-biography emfushane ka-Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol

Umlobi omkhulu waseRussia N. V. Gogol wazalelwa emndenini womnikazi wendawo ompofu ngo-March 20 (April 1), 1809, esifundeni sasePoltava. Wayengumntwana wesithathu wabazali bakaGogol-Yanovsky. Kusukela ebusheni bokuqala, umbhali wesikhathi esizayo, wabonisa uthando lwabantu abahlukahlukene. 

Inombolo yokukhetha 1

Ngemva kwesikhathi esithile, uGogol uyaqaphela ukuthi umsebenzi wezomthetho awulethi imiphumela elindelekile. Akuyona yonke into ehamba kahle ekulingiseni, futhi ngisho nemisebenzi yokuqala - inkondlo ethi "Idyll in Pictures" ihlangana nokungaqondi nokuhlekwa usulu phakathi koquqaba olubanzi. 

I-Biography ye-N.V. Gogol kafushane

Inombolo yenketho 2

Ngisho nokukhumbula bonke abalobi ababambe iqhaza ekuthuthukisweni kwezincwadi zesiRashiya, kunzima ukuthola umuntu ongaqondakali kunoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. I-biography efingqiwe kulesi sihloko izosiza ukuthola umqondo othile wobuntu bengcweti. Ngakho-ke, yimiphi imininingwane enelukuluku eyaziwayo mayelana nendlela yokuphila eyahanjwa umdali, umndeni wakhe, nezincwadi ezilotshiwe?

Ubaba nomama kaGogol

Yiqiniso, bonke abalandeli bomsebenzi womlobi bangathanda ukuba nombono mayelana nomndeni azalelwa kuwo. Igama likamama kaGogol kwakunguMaria, intombazane yayivela emndenini owaziwa kancane wabanini bomhlaba. Ngokusho kwenganekwane, kwakungasekho ntokazi enhle esifundeni sasePoltava. Washada noyise womlobi odumile eneminyaka engu-14, wazala izingane ezingu-12, ezinye zazo zashona zisencane. U-Nikolai waba ingane yakhe yesithathu futhi waba ngowokuqala ukusinda. Izikhumbuzo zabantu ababephila ngaleso sikhathi zithi uMariya wayengowesifazane okholwayo, ezama ngenkuthalo ukugxilisa uthando ngoNkulunkulu ezinganeni zakhe.

I-biography ka-nikolai vasilievich gogol kafushane

Kuyathakazelisa futhi ukuthi ubani owaba nguyise womuntu omangalisayo njengoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. Umlando ofingqiwe kulokhu okuqukethwe awukwazi ukuhluleka ukumkhuluma. U-Vasily Yanovsky-Gogol iminyaka eminingi wayesebenza eposini, wakhuphukela esikhundleni somhloli wekolishi. Kuyaziwa ukuthi wayethanda izwe lobuciko bemilingo, waze waqamba nezinkondlo, okuthi, ngeshwa, azizange zigcinwe. Kungenzeka ukuthi ikhono lendodana lokubhala latholwa nguyise.

Umlando wombhali

Abalandeli be-genius banesithakazelo lapho futhi nini u-Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol wazalwa. I-biography, enikezwe kafushane kulesi sihloko, ithi izwe lakubo yisifundazwe sasePoltava. Umntwana womfana, owazalwa ngo-1809, wadlula edolobhaneni laseSorochintsy. Imfundo yakhe yaqala ePoltava School, yabe iqhubeka eNizhyn Gymnasium. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi umbhali ubengeke abizwe ngomfundi okhuthele. UGogol wabonisa isithakazelo ikakhulukazi ezincwadini zesiRashiya, wazuza impumelelo ethile ekudwebeni.

amaqiniso athakazelisayo nge-gogol

U-Nikolai waqala ukubhala esemncane, kodwa indalo yakhe yokuqala ayikwazanga ukubizwa ngokuthi iphumelele. Isimo sashintsha lapho ethuthela eSt. Petersburg, kakade esengumfana omdala. Kwaphela isikhathi esithile uGogol ezama ukuzuza ukuqashelwa njengomdlali, wenza esiteji senye yemidlalo yaseshashalazini yaseSt. Nokho, njengoba ehlulekile, wagxila ngokuphelele ekubhaleni. By the way, eminyakeni embalwa kamuva wakwazi ukuduma ensimini yaseshashalazini, esebenza njengombhali wemidlalo.

Imuphi umsebenzi owavumela umuntu onjengoNikolai Vasilyevich Gogol ukuba azimemezele njengomlobi? I-biography, efingqiwe kule ndaba, ithi kwakuyindaba ethi "Kusihlwa ngobusuku buka-Ivan Kupala." Ekuqaleni, le ndaba yayinesihloko esihlukile, kodwa abashicileli, ngaphambi kokushicilelwa, ngenxa yezizathu ezingaziwa, bacela ukuyishintsha.

Imisebenzi ephawulekayo

"Imiphefumulo Efile" iyinkondlo okunzima ukucabanga ngayo izincwadi zesiRashiya, umsebenzi ufakwe ohlelweni lwezifundo zesikole. Umlobi kuyo ubheka izwe lakubo njengezwe elihlushwa ukufunjathiswa, elicwile ebubini, elimpofu ngokomoya. Yiqiniso, ibikezela ukuvuselelwa okungaqondakali koMbuso WaseRussia. Ngokuthakazelisayo, kwakungemva kokubhalwa kwale nkondlo lapho uN.V. Gogol efa khona.

umama gogo

"I-Taras Bulba" iyindaba yomlando, ukudalwa kwayo okwaphefumulelwa izenzakalo zangempela zekhulu le-15-17 ezenzeka endaweni yase-Ukraine. Umsebenzi awuthakazelisi kuphela ezindabeni zokuziphatha eziphakamisayo, kodwa futhi nencazelo eningiliziwe yempilo yeZaporizhzhya Cossacks.

I-"Viy" imema abafundi ukuba bangene ezinganekwaneni zamaSlav asendulo, ukwazi umhlaba owakhiwe izidalwa ezingaqondakali, ubavumela ukuba besabe futhi banqobe ukwesaba kwabo. Umhloli Jikelele uhleka usulu indlela yokuphila yehhovisi lesifundazwe, ububi obutholakala kubameleli baso. I-"The Nose" yindaba emnandi emayelana nokuziqhenya okukhulu nokuziphindiselela ngayo.

Ukufa kombhali

Akekho umuntu odumile ukufa kwakhe kuzungezwe inqwaba yezimfihlakalo nokuqagela. Kungokufa lapho kuxhunyaniswa khona amaqiniso amaningi athakazelisayo ngoGogol, ahlupha ababhali bokuphila kwabantu.

ukufa n egogol

Abanye abacwaningi baphikelela ngokuthi u-Nikolai Vasilievich wazibulala esebenzisa ushevu. Abanye baphikisa ngokuthi ukufa kwakhe esemncane kwakubangelwa ukukhathala komzimba okuhambisana nokuzila ukudla okuningi. Kanti abanye baphikelela ngokuthi ukufa kukaGogol kwabangelwa ukuphathwa kabi kwe-meningitis. Kukhona nabaqinisekisayo ukuthi umbhali wangcwatshwa ephila, esephusheni elibuhlungu. Ayikho imibono eye yafakazelwa.

Kuyaziwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi phakathi neminyaka engu-20 yokugcina yokuphila kwakhe umlobi wahlushwa yi-manic-depressive psychosis, kodwa wagwema ukuya odokotela. UGogol wafa ngo-1852.

Amaqiniso anelukuluku

U-Nikolai Vasilyevich wayehlukaniswa ngamahloni amakhulu. Kwaze kwafika lapho uhlakanipho ephuma egunjini, umbundu walo weqe umuntu angamazi. Kukholelwa ukuthi umdali washiya leli zwe ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa ubumsulwa bakhe, akazange abe nobuhlobo bothando nowesifazane. UGogol wayengenelisekile kakhulu ngokubukeka kwakhe, ikhala lakhe labangela ukucasuka okuthile. Ngokusobala, lesi sitho somzimba sasimkhathaza ngempela, njengoba waze wayiqamba le ndaba ngokumhlonipha. Kuyaziwa nokuthi ngesikhathi eshutha izithombe ubephoqa abaculi ukuthi bashintshe ukubonakala kwekhala lakhe.

Amaqiniso athakazelisayo ngoGogol axhumene hhayi kuphela nokubukeka kwakhe nokuziphatha, kodwa futhi nomsebenzi wakhe. Ababhali bomlando wokuphila komuntu bakholelwa ukuthi kwakukhona umqulu wesibili othi "Imiphefumulo Efile", umlobi owabhubhisa mathupha ngaphambi nje kokufa kwakhe. Kuyathakazelisa futhi ukuthi itulo lika-Inspector General laphakanyiswa kuye nguPushkin ngokwakhe, ukwabelana ngendaba ethakazelisayo yokuphila kwakhe.

Ngo-1839-40 uGogol wafika eRussia, wafundela abangani bakhe izahluko zeMiphefumulo Efile; ekupheleni kuka-1841 - ingxenye yokuqala ka-1842 uGogol wayesesekhaya futhi, ematasa enyathelisa ivolumu yokuqala (yaphuma ngoMeyi 1842); ngo-1842 - ekuqaleni kuka-1843 "Imisebenzi" kaGogol yanyatheliswa ngemiqulu emi-4. Kusukela ngo-June 1842, uGogol wayehlala phesheya (eFrance, eJalimane, e-Italy), eqhubeka nokusebenza kumqulu wesi-2 wenkondlo. Engxenyeni yokuqala ka-1845 impilo kaGogol yawohloka kakhulu; amandla akhe ancishwa amandla amakhulu futhi, njengoba kwakubonakala kuye, umsebenzi ongaphumeleli. Ehlobo lika-1845, uGogol washisa umbhalo wesandla wevolumu yesi-2 ukuze aqale umsebenzi futhi. Ngo-January 1847, lapho eseNaples, wezwa izindaba zokufa kuka-N.M. U-Yazykov, omunye wabangane bakhe abakhulu. Ngawo lowo nyaka, "izindima ezikhethiwe ezivela ezincwadini nabangane" zanyatheliswa - umsebenzi uGogol ayewubheka cishe "incwadi yakhe ephumelelayo" yokuqala, njengoba iqondile, ifomu lobuntatheli laveza imibono yakhe esemqoka. UGogol wasuka esimeni sokuthi ayikho inqubekelaphambili yomphakathi ezohlala isikhathi eside ngaphandle kwemfundo nokufundiswa kabusha kwawo wonke umuntu ngomoya wezimiso zokuziphatha zabalimi. Ukukhululwa "Izindawo Ezikhethiwe ..." kwaletha isivunguvungu sangempela sokugxekwa kuGogol, kuhlanganise nabangane bakhe (S.T. no-K.S. Aksakov, S.P. Shevyreva, njll.).

Imijikelezo ethi "Mirgorod" kanye "ne-Arabesques" eyalandela incwadi yokuqala yephrozi kaGogol yandisa ububanzi bomsebenzi wakhe.

Ngo-1834-35 uGogol wayenguprofesa we-adjunct e-St. Petersburg University; Waphinde wafaka isicelo (akaphumelelanga) sokuba usihlalo womlando e-Kiev University. Izifundo emlandweni zahamba ngokuhambisana nokuthuthukiswa kwemibono yobuciko nomlando, okubaluleke kakhulu idrama engapheli "Alfred" (1835) mayelana nesakhiwo seNkathi Ephakathi YaseNtshonalanga Yurophu, kanye nendaba ethi "Taras Bulba" evela. Umlando wase-Ukraine. Ukuba nomlando kaGogol kwamholela ku-The Government Inspector, ihlaya elinokuqukethwe okujulile, okungokwefilosofi ngempela (eyadlalwa okokuqala ngo-April 19, 1836 e-Alexandrinsky Theatre eSt. Petersburg; ngawo lowo nyaka yanyatheliswa njengohlelo oluhlukile. ).

Ngo-June 1836, uGogol waya phesheya, wahlala eBaden-Baden, Geneva, Vevey (Switzerland), eParis, lapho ahlangana khona no-A. Mickiewicz; lapha wathola izindaba ezishaqisayo zokushona kuka-A.S. I-Pushkin.

Kusukela ngoDisemba 1848 wayehlala no-A.P. UTolstoy eMoscow, eqhubeka nokusebenza kumqulu wesi-2 wenkondlo neminye imisebenzi (kuhlanganise naleyo eyaqala ngo-1845 eParis "Reflections on the Divine Liturgy").

Ithuna langaphambili le-N.V. UGogol
e-St. Danilov Monastery eMoscow

Ukufa kukaGogol kwabangela ukushaqeka okukhulu emphakathini waseRussia. Kusukela esontweni laseyunivesithi, lapho inkonzo yomngcwabo yenzeke khona, endaweni yokungcwaba e-St. Danilov Monastery, abafundi kanye noprofesa baseyunivesithi bathwala ibhokisi ezandleni zabo (ngo-1931, izinsalela zikaGogol zadluliselwa emathuneni aseNovodevichy).

Ngo-September 1829 wabuyela e-St. futhi ngo-April 1830 - emnyangweni we-destinies (ekuqaleni njengomabhalane, bese kuba njengomsizi kumabhalane). Ngesikhathi esifanayo, umsebenzi wakhe wokubhala wakhula.

Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol

Ekuqaleni kuka-1829, inkondlo ethi "Italy" yavela, futhi entwasahlobo yalowo nyaka, ngaphansi kwegama elithi V. Alov, "i-idyll ezithombeni" "Hans Kühelgarten" yanyatheliswa njengohlelo oluhlukile. Inkondlo ivuse impendulo ebukhali evela ku-N.A. Polevoy, uGogol washisa amakhophi angadayiswanga encwadi futhi waya phesheya, eNyakatho Jalimane.

Ngo-March 1837, uGogol wavakashela eRoma okokuqala, lapho ahlangana khona nabaculi baseRussia abasebenza lapho. Iningi Lemiphefumulo Efile yalotshwa eRoma, umsebenzi owaqala ngawo-1835.

Ekupheleni kukaJanuwari 1852, kwembulwa izimpawu zenkinga engokomoya entsha: UGogol wathatha ukufa kuka-E.M. Khomyakova, odadewabo N.M. Yazykov.

Ngo-April 1848, ngemva kokuhambela eJerusalema eya e-Holy Sepulcher, uGogol ekugcineni wabuyela ezweni lakubo; wayehlala eVasilievka, e-Odessa, eSt.

I-Great Russian Encyclopedia: Emiqulu engama-30 - M., 2007.

Ithonya likaGogol ezincwadini ezalandela likhulu kakhulu: umsebenzi wakhe waba nesandla ezindleleni ezingokoqobo, kusukela esikoleni semvelo kuya encwadini yesiRashiya; kugqugquzele ukuqiniswa nokunothiswa kwesiqondisindlela esimangalisayo. Ngasikhathi sinye, imibuzo kaGogol yezenkolo nezokuziphatha yanquma kakhulu izinkinga ze-ontological ezinganekwaneni nasefilosofini yenkolo yaseRussia ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-19 nengxenye yokuqala yekhulu lama-20. Ngekhulu lama-20, ithonya likaGogol, linqoba imingcele yezwe, lasakazekela kuwo wonke amasiko omhlaba.

I-Curriculum Vitae

Ngo-1830 uGogol wahlangana no-V. A. Zhukovsky, P. A. Pletnev futhi, ngokunokwenzeka, A. A. Delvig, futhi ngoMeyi 1831, ngobusuku ePletnev, wethulwa ku-A.S. I-Pushkin. Umjikelezo wokuqala wezindaba othi "Ntambama Epulazini eduze kwase-Dikanka" waletha ukuqashelwa okubanzi kukaGogol. Ngemva kokuvela "Kusihlwa ..." uGogol waba usaziwayo wezincwadi: ehlobo nasekwindla ka-1832 wahlangana ngentshiseko eMoscow ngu-S.T. Aksakov futhi K.S. Aksakov, M.S. Shchepkin, I.V. Kireevsky, S.P. Shevyrev, M.P. I-Pogodin. Ngo-1835, waphinde wavakashela eMoscow, lapho aqala khona ukuhlangana V. G. Belinsky.

Uzalelwe emndenini womnikazi wendawo osezingeni eliphakathi. Iminyaka yobuntwana yachitha endaweni yabazali Vasilievka.
Izithombe zithathwe ku-https://i1.wp.com/i1.wp.com/www.ngogol.ru/bio/

Ngo-1828, uGogol wathuthela eSt. Petersburg, lapho azama khona ukuthola umsebenzi.

Buyela encazelweni yombukiso

NgoFebhuwari 7, uGogol wavuma futhi wathatha isidlo, futhi ngobusuku buka-February 11-12, washisa umbhalo wesandla omhlophe wevolumu yesi-2 (izahluko ezi-5 zigcinwe ngendlela engaphelele).

Ngo-1818-19 uGogol wafunda esikoleni sasePoltava (yesifunda); ngo-1820 - ekuqaleni kuka-1821 wafunda nothisha wolimi lwesiLatini G.M. USorochinsky, ngo-1821-28 wafunda eGymnasium of Higher Sciences eNizhyn. Phakathi nale minyaka, ithalente lobuciko eliguquguqukayo likaGogol lazibonakalisa: wapenda (izindawo, imidwebo; kamuva wenza imidwebo yamadolobha, imidwebo yezembozo, njll.), eyenziwa emisebenzini, futhi wabhala imisebenzi ehlukahlukene yobuciko. Nokho, uGogol waxhumanisa ikusasa lakhe ngokuyinhloko nomsebenzi womphakathi, ephupha ngomsebenzi wezomthetho.

Indlu kaDkt M.Ya. Trokhimovsky eSorochintsy,
lapho uGogol azalelwa khona

UGogol Nikolai Vasilievich Wazalwa ngo-March 20 (1.4) 1809, u-Velikiye Sorochintsy, isifunda saseMirgorod, esifundazweni sasePoltava - February 21 (4.3) 1852, eMoscow), umlobi waseRussia, umshicileli.

I-biography emfushane kaGogol

Futhi, u-Nikolai Vasilievich wayekuthanda kakhulu ukuya emadolobheni angaphandle. Lokhu kwamnikeza umoya ohlanzekile nogqozi lokubhala imidlalo yakhe eminingi.

Ngo-1848 ubuyela eRussia. Uqala kabusha umsebenzi Wemiphefumulo Efile, kodwa ngaphambi nje kokufa kwakhe, ushisa imibhalo yesandla futhi. Ungena emicabangweni edangele, ayeke ukuphuma endlini, abone ukuzila ukudla okuqinile futhi azilethele ekukhathaleni ngokomzimba nangokokwethuka.

Washicilela izinkondlo zakhe zokuqala ngaphansi kwegama-mbumbulu V. Alov, abazange bajabulele impumelelo enkulu. Ngo-1831, uGogol wahlangana noPushkin, lo muntu ojwayelene naye wamthonya ngokwanele. Umsebenzi wokuqala owamlethela udumo ubizwa ngokuthi Evenings on a Farm eduze kwaseDikanka, owabhalwa ngo-1831-32.

UGogol wathola imfundo yakhe yamabanga aphansi ekhaya. Kusukela ngo-1818 ngo-1819 ufunda esikoleni sesifunda sasePoltava, futhi kusukela ngo-1821. ngo-1828 - e-Nizhyn Gymnasium of Higher Sciences. Ngisho neminyaka yakhe yesikole, uyakujabulela ukudlala esiteji futhi uzama isandla sakhe njengomqondisi wesiteji. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uyawuthanda umlando wase-Ukraine, amasiko esintu kanye nenganekwane, ubhala izincwadi zokuqala zokubhala futhi azishicilele kumajenali abhalwe ngesandla nama-almanacs.

  • UVasily III Ngo-March 25, 1479, indodana kaVasily yazalwa nguNkosana u-Ivan III waseMoscow nomkakhe wesibili uSophia Paleolog. Wayenomfowabo omdala u-Ivan, owayengumbusi kanye noyise wesikhathi esizayo, kodwa ngemva kokufa kwakhe

Ngo-1835, uGogol wabhala ihlaya lakhe elaziwayo elibizwa ngokuthi, Umhloli Omkhulu. Kakade ngo-1836, lo mdlalo wadlalwa futhi wadlalwa e-Alexandrinsky Theatre. Lo msebenzi wenza abantu bahlabeke umxhwele kangangokuthi abanye abantu abasabelayo baqala ukuphatha kabi uGogol. NgoJuni wonyaka ofanayo, uGogol wanquma ukushiya iRussia isikhashana. Ngakho, wayehlala eRoma, lapho asebenza khona kwenye yendalo yakhe eyinhloko ekuphileni ebizwa ngokuthi Imiphefumulo Efile. Ekuqaleni kwakuhlelwe ukuthi umsebenzi ube nemiqulu emithathu. Umqulu wokuqala we-Dead Souls wanyatheliswa ngo-1846 ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi The Adventures of Chichikov and Dead Souls. Ngawo lowo nyaka, iqoqo lemisebenzi kaGogol lashicilelwa eSt. Lezi zihlanganisa imisebenzi ebizwa ngokuthi "Umshado" kanye "Abadlali".

  • Khlebnikov Velimir Wazalwa ngo-1809. e-Ukraine (edolobhaneni laseBolshiye Sorochintsy) emndenini womnikazi wendawo ompofu. Iminyaka yakhe yobuntwana wayichitha edolobhaneni laseVasilievka.

    Idramaturgy kaGogol isiphenduke igama elisha emlandweni wethiyetha kazwelonke. Ukuqala komsebenzi wokudala kulo mkhakha kuvame ukuvela ku-1832, kwakungalesi sikhathi lapho imibono yokuqala yomlobi yakhiwe khona.

    Izithameli aziwuthandanga umdlalo. Umlobi ophoxekile uya phesheya isikhathi eside (noma kunjalo, uvakashela eRussia ngezikhathi ezithile). Uhlala isikhathi esithile eJalimane, eSwitzerland, eFrance, kamuva e-Italy. IRoma yayimthanda kakhulu. Konke kuthuthukisa ubuciko lapho, ngakho u-N.V. UGogol usebenza kanzima kunoveli ethi "Imiphefumulo Efile", eqeda indaba ethi "Ijazi", njll.

    Ngo-1852 UGogol ufile.

  • UGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

    UGogol. I-Biography 3

    U-Nikolai Vasilyevich uyaqonda ukuthi kuyadingeka ukubheka isiqondiso esisha esizothakazelisa abafundi. Eziningana zezindaba zakhe kanye nesahluko senoveli ethi Hetman kuvela ezinhlelweni eziphrintiwe. Nokho, impumelelo yangempela yeza kuye ngemva kokushicilelwa kweqoqo elithi Evenings on a Farm eduze kwaseDikanka.

    Phakathi nokuphila kwakhe, imisebenzi eminingi yaphuma esibayeni sikaGogol, esafundwa yizingane zesikole. Ukuziphatha okubekwe nguGogol emigqeni yendalo yakhe ekhulwini leshumi nane kuyafaneleka kuze kube namuhla.

    UGogol wayebathanda kakhulu abantu abavamile - ngoba umlobi wayengumuntu wezinto zonke ezikhanyayo nezinhle, futhi abantu bavezwa, ikakhulukazi ekubukeni kwabo okufanelekile kwezothando.

    N.V. I-Gogol iyi-classic eyaziwayo yezincwadi zesiRashiya futhi ingomunye wabasunguli beqiniso. Usiba lwakhe ngelephrozi, izinkondlo, idrama, izihloko ezigxekayo nezintatheli.

    Uthole imfundo yakhe eNizhny Gymnasium of Higher Sciences. Le gymnasium yasungulwa ngo-1821. Kulapho lapho uGogol osemusha waqala ukubonisa isithakazelo emsebenzini wokubhala, futhi amakhono akhe avelele okulingisa nawo abonakaliswa. UGogol, ngakolunye uhlangothi, wayefuna ukuzinikela emsebenzini wobulungisa, futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu wanquma ngo-1828 ukuthuthela eSt.

    Umlando omfushane we-Gogol ufundwe ku-inthanethi

    Umsebenzi wokudala kaGogol owalandela wawungalingani. Esikhathini esiphakathi kuka-1842 kuya ku-1845, uya phesheya futhi akakwazi ukuzithola, okwamanje esebenza inoveli yesibili yemiphefumulo efile.

    Ibanga lesi-5, ibanga lesi-7. Ukudala izingane

    Umlobi esizayo wazalwa ngo-March 20, 1809 esifundazweni Poltava, endaweni encane okuthiwa Velyki Sorochintsy. Umndeni wakhe wawungacebile. Igama likayise kwakunguVasily Afanasevich, futhi igama likanina kwakunguMaria Ivanovna.

    Kusukela ngo-1834 kuze kube ngu-1835 UGogol uhlanganyela emisebenzini yokufundisa - ufundisa ngomlando eSt. Petersburg Imperial University. Ngo-1835 amaqoqo akhe i-Mirgorod kanye ne-Arabesques yanyatheliswa, futhi umdlalo othi The Inspector General wabhalwa, ukukhiqizwa kwawo kokuqala kwenzeka ngo-1836.

    UGogol wathola imfundo ehloniphekile ebusheni bakhe. Futhi lapho eqeda isikole wasuka edolobhaneni lakubo waya eSt. Lapho, wabhala ngokungakhathali, ezama ukweqa ababhali abangaziwa aye kwabaqashelwa kakhulu.

    Iqiniso elithakazelisayo: kuyaziwa ukuthi umqulu wesibili wabhalwa nguGogol, kodwa ngo-1852 wanikeza umbhalo wesandla ekushiseni.

  • Umlando kaNikola Tesla kanye nezinto azitholile Ngemva kokuphothula esikoleni esiphakeme, u-Nikolai uya eSt. Unephupho lokubhala udumo, efuna ukuzibonakalisa endimeni yokulingisa, kodwa uyaphoqeleka ukuthi athole umsebenzi wokuba yisikhulu ngemali encane.

    Ngemva kokushicilela incwadi yokuqala ethi "Dead Souls", umlobi usebenza kweyesibili, kodwa ngo-1845. unenkinga yengqondo. Wenza incwadi yefa, ufuna ukungena endlini yezindela, ushisa inguqulo yombhalo wesandla womqulu wesibili, uthatha uhambo oluya eJerusalema.

    U-Hegel ungummeleli ovelele wefilosofi yakudala yaseJalimane futhi ungowesikole se-idealism, esibona isimiso esingokomoya, ukwazi, esisekelweni sendawo yonke, ngokuphambene nokuthanda izinto ezibonakalayo, okubona umthombo.

  • Ngo-July 10, 1856, edolobhaneni laseSmilyan, e-Austria, kwazalwa umfana emkhayeni womfundisi ogama lakhe linguNicholas. U-Nikola wazalwa engowesine kwezingane ezinhlanu zombhangqwana wakwaTesla.
  • U-Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol wazalwa ngo-1809 futhi wafa ngo-1852.

    Ngo-1829 ushicilela inkondlo ethi "Hans Küchelgarten" ngezindleko zakhe. Abagxeki babengawuthandi lo msebenzi. UGogol wathenga wonke amakhophi akhe ayengakathengiswa wawashisa.

    U-Nikolai Vasilievich wabonisa ngokucacile ukuzwela kwakhe "indoda encane", lokhu kubonakala ezindabeni zakhe eziningi.

    Velimir Khlebnikov, odabuka Kalmykia, wazalelwa emndenini omkhulu ngo-1885. Umama wembongi wakwazi ukunikeza bonke abantwana bakhe abahlanu imfundo enhle kakhulu.

Isigaba sokugcina sokuphila kukaGogol singabizwa ngokuthi uhambo lwakhe lokuya eJerusalema, lapho ethandaza khona phambi kwethuna leNkosi futhi ecela usizo lwakhe ekubhaleni Imiphefumulo Efile. Ngobusuku buka-February 11-12, uGogol washisa ivolumu yesibili ngokuphelele, ngemva kwalokho wafa ngemva kwezinsuku ezingu-10.


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