Umnotho womhlaba kanye nezigaba zokuthuthuka kwawo

     Kunezikhathi eziningana ekuthuthukisweni komnotho wezwe kanye nokubandakanyeka komnotho wezwe kuwo.

Isabelo sokuthekelisa yisilinganiso senani lokuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe ku-GDP (noma i-GNP) yezwe, evezwa njengephesenti:

    Esigabeni sesibili sokuthuthukiswa komnotho womhlaba, kwaba nokuthunyelwa okukhulu kwezimali zamabhizinisi emnothweni wobunxiwankulu bomhlaba. Ama-TNC aba amandla amakhulu ebudlelwaneni bokukhiqiza; akha izindawo zokukhiqiza zamazwe ngamazwe, okuhlanganisa ukwakhiwa komkhiqizo, ukusetshenziswa kwawo, izinkokhelo, kanye nezikweletu. Ukuhlanganiswa kwamazwe angewona ama-socialist, okungakaze kubonwe esikalini sawo, kwenzeka.

Umnotho wezwe usekelwe ekuhlukaniseni imisebenzi yamazwe ngamazwe - ukukhethekile kwamazwe ekukhiqizeni izimpahla ezithile noma izingxenye zazo. Amazwe angasebenza ngokukhethekile ekuthuthukiseni imikhakha ethile yezomnotho (izimboni, ezolimo, izinsizakalo) noma ekuthuthukiseni amagatsha ahlukahlukene ale mikhakha. Ukuqondisa kochwepheshe kungase futhi kube ukuqaliswa kwezigaba zobuchwepheshe ngabanye zenqubo yokukhiqiza.

   Ngo-1981, i-New York yamenyezelwa njengendawo yokubhanga yamahhala, lapho izinxephezelo zentela, ukukhululwa ekulawuleni ukushintshaniswa kwemali yangaphandle kanye neminye imikhawulo emakethe yenhloko-dolobha yasekhaya kwanikezwa ukuthengiselana okwenziwa nabangebona abahlali. Lokhu kwandise imakethe ye-Eurocurrency e-US.

· Ukwakheka kwezinto ezithunyelwa kwamanye amazwe - isilinganiso noma isabelo sezimpahla ezithunyelwa kwamanye amazwe ngohlobo nezinga lokucutshungulwa kwazo. Isakhiwo sokuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe senza kube nokwenzeka ukuhlukanisa impahla eluhlaza noma ukuqondiswa komshini kobuchwepheshe bokuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe, ukucacisa indawo yezwe kuchwepheshe bemboni yamazwe ngamazwe.

Isibonelo somsebenzi 1.4 sibonisa ukubalwa kwe-HDI. Amazwe athuthuke kakhulu yilawo ane-HDI engaphezu kuka-0.800. Emazweni athuthuke kakhulu, isondela ku-1. Amazwe aphakathi nendawo athuthukayo yilawo ane-HDI engaphezu kuka-0.500. Isilinganiso somhlaba se-HDI sinenani elingaba ngu-0.760. Emazweni athuthukile okungenani, i-HDI ≈ 0.200.

ngenisa ukungenisa

   Ngakho-ke, ngaphansi kwethonya lezinqubo zokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-20, ukukhuphuka kwekhwalithi kwenzeka ekuthuthukisweni komnotho womhlaba, futhi kwaphenduka iqoqo leminotho yezwe esebenzisanayo yaba into eyodwa yezomnotho yeplanethi - umnotho omkhulu. .

   Ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kuwukuvela kwezinkinga ezivamile noma okungenani ezifanayo ezifundeni ezihlukene zomhlaba (isibonelo, ezemvelo, ukudla, ukufuduka, kanye nezinkinga okwamanje zobuphekula emhlabeni), kanye nokuthembela okwandayo okuhlala kungokwenhlalo nepolitiki. yezifundazwe kanye nokuvela kwezindawo ezinkulu izintshisekelo ezifanayo.

    2. Izigaba zokuthuthukiswa komnotho wezwe.

(kwenziwe lula)

isilinganiso sempilo ye-GDP yomhlaba wonke nge-PPP yomuntu ngamunye

     Ngokwemvelo, umnotho womhlaba njengohlelo unomgomo ofanayo, okuwukuhlangabezana nezidingo zabantu (isidingo). Kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi kumasistimu angaphansi (amazwe) ahlukene le nhloso iyashintshwa ngenxa yezimo ezihlukene zenhlalo-mnotho, i.e. izinhlelo ezingaphansi ekuthuthukisweni kwazo azilandeli kuphela izinjongo ezijwayelekile zohlelo lomhlaba, kodwa futhi zixazulula imisebenzi yazo engokwemvelo. Ukuhlonza izinqubo ezingaphansi komnotho womhlaba, kusetshenziswa inani lemibandela (sizohlaziya lezi zindlela ngokuningiliziwe kamuva nje).

Umnotho womhlaba ukuxhumana komnotho kazwelonke wamazwe ngamanye, oxhunywe uhlelo lobudlelwano bomnotho wamazwe ngamazwe (IER).

umnyakazo wemali yamazwe ngamazwe

Uhlelo:

   Ngakho-ke, endaweni yezomnotho yesimanje, inhloko-dolobha enamandla yamazwe ngamazwe manje ihamba ngokukhululekile, engaphandle kwegunya lezifunda zikazwelonke.

ubude besikhathi =————————————————————————————

imfundo 3

    Izihloko (abahlanganyeli) zomnotho womhlaba yilezi:

ukuphila

    3. Umqondo wokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke

    Ezincwadini zezomnotho akukho ukuqonda okuvamile kwamagama "umnotho wezwe", "umnotho wezwe".

izinga =———————————————————————————————

    Ukuthunyelwa kwezimali zamabhizinisi kwamanye amazwe kwaholela ekuqhamukeni komkhiqizo wamazwe ngamazwe, okusho ukuthi ukuhwebelana kwamanye amazwe kungene esigabeni esisha sentuthuko. Ngenxa yalokho, kwaqala ukunqamuka okunye ukuhlukaniswa kwezomnotho kwamazwe, ukuhlukaniswa kwezisebenzi emhlabeni wonke ezingeni lemikhakha kwaqina, futhi ukushintshana kwezohwebo kwaqina. Inqubomgomo yezohwebo ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-19 yayibonakala ngokuvikela.

Inzuzo yohwebo lwangaphandle ngesakhamuzi esisodwa sezwe:

    Ngaleso sikhathi, kwavela izimo zezomnotho ezintsha ngokuphelele futhi zasungula zona kanye nezinqubo zeplanethi ezithuthukisiwe emnothweni, imibono, i-ecology, kanye nomkhakha wezenhlalakahle, ezithinta bonke abantu emhlabeni futhi ngenxa yalokho zabizwa ngokuthi umhlaba jikelele.

   I-Euromarket izuza izinzuzo zokuncintisana, njengoba izinga lenzalo elikhula ngokuzenzakalelayo kuyo livumela amabhange ukuthi akhokhe ngaphezulu% futhi anikeze izikweletu ngamanani aphansi.

    Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi ngokushesha ngemva kwempi, ubunye baseYurophu bakhuthazwa iMarshall Plan ecatshangelwe kahle, okwathi ngesikhathi esifanayo yagwema inkinga yomnotho waseMelika ehlobene nokuqedwa kwezempi, futhi, ngenxa yalokho, ukukhiqizwa ngokweqile, futhi kwasusa usongo. emazweni amaningana aseYurophu ukuya enkanjini eyayisabeka nenamandla yesocialism. Ngaphansi koHlelo lukaMarshall, lokho okwakuwusizo olukhulu ngaleso sikhathi lwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-12,5 kwanikezwa amazwe aseYurophu ukuze athole izibopho eziningi zezombangazwe. Ngo-July 1947, eNgqungqutheleni yaseParis yamazwe angu-16 aseYurophu ahlanganyela ohlelweni (i-Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Turkey, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany), iKomiti Yezomnotho YaseYurophu. Kwasungulwa ukubambisana.

kulindeleke

· Ivolumu yokukhiqizwa kwe-GDP ngomuntu ngamunye ngokulingana kwamandla okuthenga ngemali kazwelonke Emazweni athuthukile, i-GDP ngomuntu ngamunye ku-PPP namuhla okungenani ingamadola ayizinkulungwane eziyi-12.

ü TNK

· Isayensi yamazwe ngamazwe kanye nezobuchwepheshe, ezokuvakasha, ukubonisana, njll. ubudlelwano

Inani lokuthekelisa Isabelo sokuthekelisa = ───────────────── x 100%

 Iminyaka eyishumi yokugcina yekhulu lama-20 ingabhekwa njengesiqalo senkathi entsha ekuthuthukisweni komnotho wezwe. Izinga lokwakheka kwamazwe ngamazwe, futhi kwezinye izimo amandla okukhiqiza amaplanethi anyukile, ukusebenzelana kwezomnotho nokuncikana kuye kwaqina. Emazweni aseMpumalanga Yurophu, izinqubo zokwakheka nokusongwa kwezakhiwo zezomnotho nezombusazwe eduze nezifunda zaseNtshonalanga ziyenzeka. Kwaba noshintsho esakhiweni senhlalo yamazwe aseMpumalanga Yurophu, i-USSR yangaphambili, ukuwa kwesistimu yezenhlalakahle yomhlaba.

    Umnotho womhlaba uyisigaba somlando nezepolitiki nezomnotho. Lokhu kuchazwa ukuthi isigaba ngasinye somlando sibonakala ngezinga elithile kanye nezinga lokukhiqiza, ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe kwempilo yezomnotho kanye nesakhiwo senhlalo-mnotho. Izihloko zayo yizinkampani zamazwe ngamazwe, umnotho kazwelonke, izinhlangano zokuhlanganisa amazwe ngamazwe, zona ngokwazo ziyizinhlelo ezinomthetho wazo.

share Ivolumu ye-GDP (GNP) - ukuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe + ukungenisa kwasekhaya

I-MEO yenza ngalezi zindlela ezilandelayo:

(akukho ngaphezu kweminyaka engama-85 ubudala)

ü amazwe omhlaba

    Ingxenye yesithathu yokugcina yekhulu le-19 yaqeda inqubo ende yomlando yokwakhiwa komnotho wezwe. Ngalesi sikhathi, ukuhlukaniswa kwezindawo zomhlaba phakathi kwemibuso yama-imperialism kwaphela. Ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe, ukuthunyelwa kwezimali zebhizinisi kwamanye amazwe kwathatha indawo yomhlaba wonke, futhi kwasungulwa umnotho womhlaba.

ukuphila ezweni

· Izinga kanye nezinga lempilo ezweni - izinga lokwaneliseka kwezidingo ezingokwenyama nezingokomoya zabantu. Izinga kanye nezinga lempilo kunqunywa inqwaba yezinkomba. Umzamo wokufingqa okunye kwalokhu okubaluleke kakhulu yi-Human Development Index (HDI), ebalwa njenge-arithmetic mean yesamba sezinkomba zayo ezintathu eziyinhloko: inkomba yeminyaka yokuphila, inkomba yezinga lemfundo, nezinga le inkomba yokuphila.

    Ngokusobala, umnotho wezwe uwuhlelo oluthile. Isisekelo sokuvela nokuba khona kwesistimu ubuqotho bayo, okubandakanya ukuxhumana kwezomnotho kwezingxenye zohlelo ezingeni elizinzile. Isisekelo salolu hlelo ukukhiqizwa kwamazwe ngamazwe kanye kazwelonke kwezimpahla ezibonakalayo nezingokomoya ezinqunyelwe uhlaka lwezwe ngalinye, ukusatshalaliswa kwazo, ukushintshaniswa nokusetshenziswa kwazo.

Inani labantu bezwe

Ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe ngezimpahla nemisebenzi

iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-15 imfundo ku-Index yesikole kanye neminyaka yabafundi

· Ukuhamba kwezimali emhlabeni jikelele;

· Ukufudukela kwamanye amazwe kwabasebenzi;

Isabelo sokungenisa ezweni siyisilinganiso senani lempahla ethengwayo evela kumthamo wokusetshenziswa kwasekhaya, ovezwa njengephesenti:

I-GDP (GNP)

    Kule minyaka eyishumi edlule yekhulunyaka elidlule, ngenxa yenguquko yezomnotho, kuye kwasungulwa uhlelo olusha ngokuphelele lwezomnotho emhlabeni wonke, oluvame ukubizwa ngokuthi i-mega-economy. Ngokuvumelana nalokhu, indlela yesimanje yokufunda umnotho womhlaba kufanele gxila ekuyifundeni njengohlelo olusha, oluyinkimbinkimbi olubalulekile, izakhiwo namaphethini okungeke kuthathwe ezimpahleni nasemaphethini ezingxenye zawo.Okungukuthi, umnotho womhlaba emhlabeni wesimanje awukwazi ukuthathwa njengeqoqo lokusebenzisana kuphela. umnotho wezwe.

Abahlanganyeli bomnotho womhlaba bangaphezu kwamazwe nezindawo ezingama-200. Ukuze kuhlolwe kahle indima yeqembu ngalinye lamazwe ohlelweni lobudlelwano bamazwe ngamazwe, osomnotho basungule izinketho ezimbalwa zokuhlukaniswa kwamazwe ngamazwe. Ukuhlukaniswa okuvame kakhulu kwe-International Monetary Fund, ngokusho kwawo wonke amazwe ahlukaniswe ngamaqembu amathathu: athuthukile, asathuthuka kanye namazwe anomnotho oguquguqukayo (aqhuba inguquko esuka ekuphathweni kuya emnothweni wemakethe). Ngesikhathi esifanayo, isisekelo sokufaka izwe eqenjini elithile izinga lokuthuthukiswa kwenhlalakahle yezomnotho, okunqunywa izinkomba ezilandelayo ezibalulekile:

    Ngokuphambene nesakhiwo sasempumalanga senhlalo-mnotho, isimo sasendulo sasinempahla yangasese, eyimfihlo kakhulu kanye neyomphakathi. Umsebenzi wezigqila wawusetshenziswa kabanzi, ubuciko bebuhlukanisiwe nezolimo. Imikhiqizo yezandla zasendulo, ngenxa yekhwalithi yayo ephezulu, yanqoba imikhiqizo yezandla yaseMpumalanga kanye nemikhiqizo yasempumalanga ekhishwe ezimakethe zaseMedithera. (cishe ikhulu le-1-10 AD)

   Isigaba 3 - 1980 -1990-2000 - kuze kube manje.

    Ingxenye yesibili yekhulunyaka lama-20 ibonakala ngokukhula okwengeziwe kwesilinganiso semisebenzi yezomnotho, ukwanda kobudlelwane phakathi kwamazwe ahlukene, nokujula kokuhlukaniswa kwezabasebenzi emhlabeni wonke. Awekho amazwe angazange asebenzisane ngokwezomnotho, abengeke afakwe ohlelweni lobudlelwano bezimboni. Njengamanje, umhlaba wonke uyinkundla yemisebenzi yezomnotho exhumene yabantu. Kusobala ukuthi umhlaba, nabo bonke ubunkimbinkimbi bawo nokungahlangani kwezomnotho, uwubuqotho obuthile, ubunye.

   Uhlelo lwezomnotho lomhlaba olukhona lwakhiwe amazwe angonxiwankulu asethuthuke ngokwezimboni kanye nenqwaba yamazwe angamakoloni kanye nalawo ancike kwezokulima. Amaphethini okuthuthukiswa kwamazwe aseNtshonalanga aqala ukunquma izinkombandlela eziyinhloko zeqoqo lonke lobudlelwano bomnotho wezwe, izisusa zokuthuthukiswa komnotho zavela kubo.

Izindleko Zezindleko

   Okwesibili, i ezizimele futhi ezizimele of uthi kazwelonke, capital yamazwe ngamazwe ukuthi kwavela amandla abo (ukuvela eurodollars futhi euromarkets, kwaba ngalesi sikhathi - 60-70 iminyaka. Ukusebenzisa inkululeko yemakethe exchange angaphandle, ukuthi amabhange European yaqala ukuheha amadiphozithi angasese futhi yanikeza izikweletu ngamadola - izimali ezihehwa emakethe yaseYurophu azikho ngaphansi kwezidingo zokugodla zamabhange amaphakathi kanye nezilinganiso zenzalo kumadiphozithi e-euro azikhokhiswa intela engenayo.

   Yini, ngemva kwakho konke, eyayisebenza njengembangela yokuvela komnotho we-mega, futhi ingabe ungabonisa ngandlela-thile usuku olulinganiselwe lokuzalwa kwayo? Ngokusobala, yaqala ukuvela futhi yakha ubunye obusha beplanethi ekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka elidlule (20th) ngaphansi kwethonya lezimo ezintathu ezinkulu zezomnotho nezobuchwepheshe:

· Isakhiwo sokungeniswa kwamanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi isilinganiso semithamo yezinto ezingavuthiwe ezingeniswa ezweni kanye nemikhiqizo eqediwe. Le nkomba ikhombisa ngokunembe kakhulu ukuncika komnotho wezwe emakethe yangaphandle kanye nezinga lentuthuko yemikhakha yomnotho wezwe.

Ngenisa = ────────── x 100% = ───────────────────────1%

Okuncane. ubude besikhathi

Inkomba

     IBrithani, eyathola ukuphakama kwezimboni emhlabeni wonke ngemva kwezimpi zamaNapoleon, yaqala umzabalazo wenkululeko yokuhweba, ukuqedwa kwemisebenzi. Ukuncishiswa kwezithiyo zohwebo eNtshonalanga Yurophu kwaqala ngo-1860 ngemva kokuphothulwa kwesivumelwano sohwebo se-Anglo-French, lapho izivumelwano ezinjalo ziqala ukufaka izinhlinzeko zokuphathwa kwesizwe okuthandwa kakhulu.

ukusetshenziswa

    Ngemva kweMpi Yezwe II, isimo senhlalo somnotho sawohloka mayelana nokwakhiwa komnotho wezwe wobuhlali. Ukudidiyela ubudlelwano bomnotho wamazwe angaphandle, okusekelwe endleleni yesigaba, kwanciphisa ububanzi bomnotho womhlaba owawubumbene ngaphambili, kodwa kwehluleka ukucekela phansi imakethe yomhlaba. Nokho, izidingo zezomnotho kwezenhlalo kanye cap. amazwe aqinisekisa ukugcinwa kobudlelwane bezomnotho bangaphandle, obunokuqukethwe okubalulekile kanye nobuchwepheshe. Imvelo yobudlelwano yayiyinkimbinkimbi futhi iphikisana. Ngalesi sikhathi, amazwe eSocialist athatha indawo evelele kwezohwebo emhlabeni, ngo-1960, abalelwa ku-11.7% wezimpahla ezithunyelwa ngaphandle.

Esibonelweni somsebenzi 1.5, isibonelo sokucabanga sokuhlukanisa amazwe ngamaqembu sibonisiwe, ngokusekelwe kudatha: kumthamo wokukhiqizwa kwe-GDP ngomuntu ngamunye ngokwe-PPP, ngesakhiwo somkhakha we-GDP, kunkomba yokuthuthukiswa kwabantu.

    Ukuthuthukiswa kweNtshonalanga Yurophu. Ngemva kokuwa koMbuso WamaRoma ekupheleni kwekhulu lesi-5. eNtshonalanga Yurophu kwakukhona cishe okuphelele kokutshala nokugcinwa kwemvelo komnotho. Umphakathi wasemaphandleni waba yisakhiwo esiyinhloko sezomnotho. Kwathatha amakhulu eminyaka ukuthi umsebenzi wezomnotho uvuseleleke kule ngxenye yomhlaba, njengoba Uma kuqhathaniswa nezindawo lapho impucuko yaseMpumalanga yayihlala khona, iNtshonalanga Yurophu yayinezimo zemvelo ezingezinhle kangako, kodwa indawo yayo yayingcono. Kusukela engxenyeni yesibili yekhulu le-15, kwaqala ukwanda okukhulu kwezomnotho. Ukutholwa okukhulu kwezindawo ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-15-17 kwadlala indima ekhethekile ekuthuthukisweni kobudlelwano bemakethe (ngo-1498 uVasco de Gama wafika ogwini lwaseNdiya, ngo-1492 uChristopher Columbus wafika ogwini lwaseMelika, ngo-1521 uMagellan wenza uhambo lokuqala. emhlabeni jikelele.

    1. Umqondo womnotho wezwe (umnotho womhlaba). Izihloko zomnotho womhlaba

    Ukwakhiwa komnotho womhlaba Ukwakhiwa kwemakethe yomhlaba kube nomthelela ekukhuphuleni izinga lamandla okukhiqiza kanye nokuhlalisana kwawo. Ukuthuthukiswa okunamandla kwamandla okukhiqiza emazweni aseNtshonalanga kwakungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokukhiqizwa kwamanye amazwe, okwakusekelwe ekukhiqizeni imikhiqizo emazweni ngamanye kanye nokuthuthukiswa kokuhwebelana kwezomnotho namazwe ahlukahlukene, kuhlanganise nokwandiswa kokubusa kwamakholoni. inombolo encane yamazwe ezindaweni ezintsha kanye nokuxhumana kwawo ngenkani nenqubo ehlanganisa konke yokukhiqiza. Ubukoloniyali bekungesinye sezimo ezinomthelela ekuhlanganisweni kwezomnotho emhlabeni ngenkani.

    2. Izigaba zentuthuko kanye nezindlela zokuhlaziya izinqubo zenhlalo-mnotho emnothweni womhlaba.

2) uhlelo lobudlelwano bomnotho wamazwe ngamazwe, i.e. iqoqo lezomnotho.

ubudlelwano bezezimali namazwe ngamazwe,

2  isilinganiso sokufunda nokubhala + izinga lokubhalisa labantu

ukufuduka kwabasebenzi bamazwe ngamazwe.

1. Umqondo womnotho wezwe (umnotho womhlaba). Izihloko zomnotho womhlaba

Ngokuyisisekelo, zonke izincazelo zizwakala kanje: umnotho womhlaba unjalo

Amafomu obudlelwano bomnotho wamazwe ngamazwe:

I-International division of labour MRI

Thekelisa + Ngenisa inzuzo yohwebo lwangaphandle = ────────────────────────

   ISoviet Union yawugxeka umqondo walolu hlelo, iwubheka njengendlela yokungenelela ezindabeni zangaphakathi zamazwe aseYurophu, ihlukanisa iJalimane futhi ihlukanise iYurophu ibe yizigaba ezi-2 eziphikisanayo. I-USSR yayisekelwa yi-Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland.

· Isakhiwo somkhakha we-GDP yezwe - isabelo sezimboni ezithile ku-GDP yezwe. Emazweni anezinga eliphezulu lentuthuko, isimo sijwayelekile lapho ukwakheka kwe-GDP yawo kubuswa umkhakha wezemfundo ephakeme (umkhakha wezinsizakalo). Umkhakha wesibili (izimboni nezokwakha) umelwe ikakhulukazi imboni yokukhiqiza. Isabelo somkhakha oyinhloko (ezolimo, amahlathi, ukuzingela, ukudoba, njll.) sincane. Nakuba ukwakheka kwe-GDP yamanye amazwe asathuthuka kunengxenye enkulu yemikhakha yemfundo ephakeme neyesibili, lokhu kuvame ukuhlotshaniswa nokuthuthukiswa kwezokuvakasha noma ezohwebo, kanye nengxenye enkulu yemboni yokumba.

   Okwesithathu, sekuvele ubuchwepheshe obusha bokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke, ikakhulukazi ulwazi, amakhompyutha kanye nobuchwepheshe benethiwekhi.

   Ukwakhiwa komnotho wezwe kwandulelwa ukuthuthukiswa okude kwamandla okukhiqiza, okwaholela ekuhlukaneni kwemisebenzi nokudala izibopho zezomnotho. Ukuthuthukiswa kwamandla okukhiqiza kwenzeka ezinhlotsheni ezithile zomphakathi zenhlangano yabo. Umlando womphakathi wesintu kanye namandla okukhiqiza wawubonakala ngokudalwa ezingxenyeni ezihlukene zeplanethi yezinhlaka ezizinzile zezenhlalo nezomnotho ezineminyaka eyikhulu ubudala nokuphathwa okukhethekile kwezombusazwe, isiko, i-psychology yezenhlalakahle, kanye nezici zesici zokugcina ubudlelwano bangaphandle.

    Ubudlelwano phakathi kwezinto ezingazodwana zomnotho womhlaba zingamazinga. Izinga lamazwe ngamazwe - ubudlelwano phakathi kwezifundazwe. Leli zinga lilawulwa imithetho nemithetho yamazwe ngamazwe.

     Ngokwemvelo, ukuvela kwe-mega-economy, kanye nanoma iyiphi inhlangano entsha eye yavela ngenxa yezinqubo zokuziphendukela kwemvelo, ayikwazi ukufakwa usuku olunembile. Kwakuwumphumela wokunqwabelana kancane kancane kwezakhiwo nezici ezavela emathunjini omnotho womhlaba phakathi nengxenye yesibili yekhulu lama-20.

· Ubudlelwano bezezimali nezikweletu zamazwe ngamazwe.

· Ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe ngezimpahla nemisebenzi;

    Ekupheleni kwekhulu le-19 kwaba nokwanda okukhulu kwentuthuko yezomnotho. Injini yokukhula komnotho kwaba ukukhiqizwa kwezimboni, ngoba 1870-1913. umthamo wayo ukhuphuke izikhathi ezi-4.

   Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, iBrithani kanye namazwe e-Sterling zone bashiya izinga legolide, abanye - eFrance, e-Italy. IBelgium, iNetherlands, iSwitzerland - indawo yegolide - bayigcina, abanye basebenzisa izilawuli zokushintshana futhi bangena ezivumelwaneni zokukhokhelana kwamazwe amabili. Ngenxa yalokho, ukuhwebelana kwamanye amazwe kwaqala ukwehla ngokushesha kunokukhiqiza. Lo mkhuba waqhubeka kwaze kwaba maphakathi nawo-1940.

    Isigaba 2 - 1945-1950-1980

Izimfuneko zokukhethekile zamazwe ekukhiqizeni izinhlobo ezithile zezimpahla kungase kube izimo zemvelo (isimo sezulu, indawo, ukutholakala kwezimbiwa), ukuba khona kwensalela, abanamakhono aphansi, abasebenzi abashibhile, izinga lezomnotho nesayensi nezobuchwepheshe. ukuthuthukiswa okuzuziwe, ukuba khona kokukhiqizwa kwendabuko, njll.

2. Izigaba zentuthuko kanye nezindlela zokuhlaziya izinqubo zenhlalo-mnotho emnothweni womhlaba.

– Ubuncane. qhubeka.

   Ngakho-ke, lezi zincazelo zisivumela ukuba sisho ukuvela kwenhlangano entsha yezomnotho, esiyibiza ngokuthi i-mega-economy - uhlelo olulodwa lwezomnotho emhlabeni wonke lapho indima enkulu idlalwa yizifundazwe zikazwelonke, i-transnational capital (i-TNcompanies kanye ne-Tnbanks), ama-megacities, amazwe ngamazwe. izinhlangano, izinkampani zasolwandle kanye nosomabhizinisi ngabanye.

    Ushintsho olukhulu ekuthuthukisweni komnotho lwenzeka ekhulwini le-18, lapho iBrithani yenza inguquko isuka endaweni yokukhiqiza iye ohlelweni lwefekthri yokukhiqiza esekelwe kubuchwepheshe bemishini. Kwaphawula lokho okubizwa ngokuthi uguquko lwezimboni.Imishini yokukhiqiza eyathuthukiswa kwi-metallurgy, inqubo yokuthola insimbi nensimbi ensimbini yaqaliswa, futhi kwasungulwa injini yesitimu. Indawo eyinhloko emphakathini yayithathwe umkhiqizi, inhloko-dolobha yezimboni.Kwathuthukiswa izimakethe zikazwelonke, kamuva izimboni ezinkulu zahlukana nezimakethe zikazwelonke futhi zathembela ezimakethe zamazwe ngamazwe.

Ukuqonda okuvamile kakhulu komnotho womhlaba njengeqoqo leminotho yezwe lonke exhunywe uhlelo lobudlelwano bomnotho wamazwe ngamazwe (IER) kuvezwa ngezindlela ezahlukene.

Ukubalwa kwezinkomba ezingenhla kanye nesibonelo sokuhlaziywa kwazo kunikezwe kumsebenzi 1.1.

Ubude besikhathi -

   Ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kwemakethe yaseYurophu, kuye kwavela izikhungo ezintsha zezezimali zamazwe ngamazwe - i-Luxembourg, iSingapore, iHong Kong, iPanama, i-Bahamas, imisebenzi yayo ekhululiwe ekulawuleni imali nalapho izintela ziye zaqedwa khona ngenzuzo evela kwinzalo.

Ukuhlola izinga lokuvuleleka komnotho kazwelonke, lezi zinkomba ezilandelayo zisetshenziswa:

    Umnotho womhlaba njengohlelo awukwazi ukuthuthuka ngaphandle komyalelo othile osuselwe ezinkambisweni zomthetho wamazwe ngamazwe womphakathi nowangasese olawula ubudlelwano bezomnotho phakathi kwezifundazwe, izinhlangano zezomnotho, izinhlangano zomthetho nabantu ngabanye.

Ukuhlanganisa okubalulekile ngengqikithi yomnotho wezwe (umnotho womhlaba), sizofunda imigomo nemibono eyisisekelo ozoyisebenzisa esikhathini esizayo:

    Ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kuyinqubo yokusebenzelana kanye nokungena phakathi kwempucuko ehlukahlukene eye yathuthukiswa emingceleni yezindawo ezinzile ngokwesisekelo samaqembu ezizwe ezithile, ikhula kancane kancane ngezinga lomlando.

   Uguquko luka-1917 lwakha enye indlela ye-imperialism, yethula isimiso se-bipolarity ohlelweni lwezwe. IRussia yalahlekelwa kakhulu ngenxa yezimpi. Ukukhiqizwa kwayo kwezimboni ngo-1922 kwaba ngu-13% kuphela wezinga lika-1913, eJalimane - 55%. Ukuwohloka Okukhulu Kwezomnotho ngasekupheleni kwawo-1920 nasekuqaleni kwawo-1930 kwakuhambisana nokwehla okukhulu kokukhiqizwa emazweni athuthukile (ngo-18%). Iminyaka engu-29-32. ukukhiqizwa kwezimboni e-United States kwehle ngo-44,7%, i-GDP - ngo-28%, eFrance - ngo-25.6 no-11%, eJalimane - 40.8 no-158%, iBrithani - 11.4 no-5.1%. Igebe ezingeni lokuthuthukiswa kwamazwe omhlaba wokuqala nowesithathu lidlule izikhathi ezingu-4.2. Kube khona ukunikezwa okungapheli okweqile kwezinto zokusetshenziswa kwezolimo namaminerali, okubangelwa isimo sokufunwa. Izinga lokuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe lehle kakhulu,

UMaksim. qhubeka.

    Ngakho-ke, ukutholwa Okukhulu kwezindawo, ukwanda kwamakholoni kwakha izimfuneko zokuhlukaniswa kwabasebenzi emhlabeni wonke, ukwakhiwa kwemakethe yomhlaba. Kukholakala ukuthi iNtshonalanga yaqala ukudlula amazwe aseMpumalanga lapho iRiphabhulikhi yaseVenetian, ngokusekelwa yimikhumbi yaseSpain, inqoba amaTurkey empini yaseLepanto. Kodwa-ke, i-preponderance yaseMpumalanga ngokwezinga lokuya emadolobheni yahlala ibonakala, okufakazela ukuhlukaniswa kwemisebenzi yezandla eyayikhona emakhulwini e-18-19, ukuba khona kwemali yomthengisi kanye ne-surious. Ngokusho kwabanye ochwepheshe, ekupheleni kwekhulu le-18. amazwe aseNtshonalanga Yurophu ngokwentuthuko yezomnotho acishe adlula amazwe aseMpumalanga.

ukubambisana kwamazwe ngamazwe okusekelwe ku-MRI - ukuhlukaniswa kwabasebenzi bamazwe ngamazwe 

1) ingqikithi yomnotho wamazwe omhlaba (iminotho yezomnotho kazwelonke);

Isifundo 1 Umnotho wezwe lanamuhla

Inkomba ye-GDP ngomuntu ngamunye eguqulelwe ku-PPP ezweni lezinga =————————————————————————————

ü amaqembu ahlanganisayo

   Okokuqala, ukushintshela kwamazwe athuthukile emphakathini wolwazi kanye nohlelo lobuchwepheshe bolwazi sekuqalile futhi kuyaqhubeka.

ü izinhlangano zomnotho zamazwe ngamazwe

    Ngokwemibandela yenhlalo-mnotho, umnotho womhlaba awufani. Indawo ehamba phambili ingeyamazwe aseNtshonalanga anezimboni - umhlaba wokuqala. Amazwe aseMpumalanga Yurophu anomnotho oguquguqukayo kanye nenani lezinye izifundazwe anokucaciswa okukhulu ekuthuthukisweni kwawo. Indawo ekhethekile ithathwa amazwe asathuthuka - umhlaba wesithathu, agcina kakhulu isimo somnotho wawo esincike emazweni ezimboni.

     Le ncazelo ihlanganisa izingxenye eziyinhloko zanoma yimuphi umnotho - lokhu kuyisisekelo sezinto ezibonakalayo, ukuqaliswa kwezinhlobo ezihlukahlukene zobunikazi kanye nenqubo ethile yokusebenza kwezinqubo zokukhiqiza kabusha.

Ukulingana kwamandla okuthenga ohlobo lwemali (PPP) isilinganiso esiphakathi kwezimali zikazwelonke ngokuya kwamandla azo okuthenga, i.e. ngokucabangela ezweni ngalinye izintengo zesethi ethile yezimpahla namasevisi. Njengoba izintengo kuwo wonke amazwe omhlaba zihlukile, ukulingana kwamandla okuthenga akuhambisani nezinga lokushintshisana kwezimali zezwe. Lapho ubeka izinga lokushintshaniswa kwemali kazwelonke, isilinganiso sokuhlinzekwa kanye nesidingo sale mali sithathwa, esakhiwe ngenxa yemisebenzi yohwebo lwangaphandle, i.e. ngokusekelwe ezimpahleni nasezinsizeni ezidayiswayo. Kodwa-ke, emazweni amaningi omhlaba bamele ingxenye encane ye-GDP yabo. Lapho kunqunywa ama-PPP, uhla olubanzi kakhulu lwezimpahla namasevisi luthathwa ukuze lufake kokubili izimpahla namasevisi angadayiswa nezingadayiswa. Ngakho, Ngaphansi Kohlelo Lwe-UN International Comparison Program, 600-800 izimpahla eziyisisekelo zabathengi namasevisi, 200-300 izimpahla eziyisisekelo zotshalomali kanye 10-20 amaphrojekthi wokwakha ajwayelekile athathwa. Bese unquma ukuthi le sethi ibiza malini ngemali kazwelonke yezwe elicwaningwayo kanye namadola aseMelika. Ngokusekelwe ekusungulweni kwe-PPP, amandla okuthenga emali yezwe ethile ayanqunywa. Ukubalwa kwe-PPP kuboniswa esibonelweni sezinkinga 1.2 no-1.3. Ukulinganisa kwamandla okuthenga kusetshenziselwa izinjongo zokuhlaziya, hhayi ukubala kwezomnotho. Ezifundeni ezinomnotho emazweni ashintshayo kanye namazwe asathuthuka, kujwayelekile ukuthi i-PPP yohlobo lwemali kazwelonke idlule izinga layo lokushintshisana, emazweni athuthukile - ngokuphambene nalokho, futhi kuphela e-United States, ngenxa yokuthi amanani abo athathwa njenge amaphuzu okuqala, i-PPP yedola ihambisana ngokuphelele nezinga layo lokushintshaniswa.

Ukuvuleleka komnotho wezwe kunqunywa izinga lokubamba iqhaza kwawo ekuhlukaniseni imisebenzi yamazwe ngamazwe. Umnotho ovaliwe (we-autarkic) ubonakala ngokuqondiswa kwabakhiqizi ezimakethe zasekhaya zezinto zokusetshenziswa, izimpahla kanye nokudayiswa. Ukuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe kwenziwa kuphela ukuze kunxeshezelwe izindleko zokungeniswa kwamanye amazwe okudingekayo, ngaphandle kwalokho izwe elingakwazi ukwenza ngaphandle kwalo. Umnotho ovulekile ufuna ukusebenzisa ngokugcwele izinzuzo zobuchwepheshe bamazwe ngamazwe

Kule ncazelo, izingxenye eziyinhloko ziyiminotho kazwelonke, ngaphandle kokubheka ukuncika emakethe yasekhaya noma yangaphandle, ukukhiqizwa kwazo kuqondiswe, futhi ukunakwa okuyinhloko kukhokhwa ezicini zendawo yamazwe ngamazwe eziyinkimbinkimbi zezimboni ezihamba phambili emhlabeni. Ngokuvamile, le ndlela isebenzisa igama elithi "umnotho womhlaba".

    Njengoba kwaziwa, izinhlelo zezomnotho ezijwayelekile zingahlukaniswa zibe indlela yase-Asia yokukhiqiza kanye nendlela yakudala yokukhiqiza. Imodi yokukhiqiza yase-Asia ibonakala ngendima eqinile yokuqinisa umbuso. (I-India, i-China, i-Egypt, i-Iran, i-Ottoman Empire) Umbusi wayephethe amazwe amakhulu, isikhungo sombuso sasithatha isikhundla somphathi wazo zonke izinsiza. Ukukhiqizwa kwemisebenzi yezandla ikakhulukazi kwakungaphansi kwenkonzo yombuso, izinkantolo zasebukhosini, izicukuthwane, amasosha, ngakho ukuthuthukiswa kokukhiqizwa kwezandla kwaba ngcono kancane kakhulu. Ukudlondlobala kwendlela yokuphila yemvelo kwakusekelwe futhi kwaqiniswa hhayi kuphela nguhulumeni, kodwa nayimibono eyinkimbinkimbi eyayithatha ukuhweba njengomsebenzi ongafanele.Emazweni amaningana, ukuhweba nemisebenzi yezandla kwakungahlonishwa. ENdiya, izingcweti zaziphakathi kwabaphansi. Ukuntuleka kosizo kuhulumeni omkhulu akuzange kube nomthelela ekukhuleni kokukhiqizwa kwemisebenzi yezandla. Kusukela ekhulwini kuya ekhulwini, uhlobo olufanayo lwamathuluzi lwakhiqizwa. Insalela yabasebenzi, isilinganiso semisebenzi ephilayo neyenyama, izisebenzi eziphilayo kanye nomhlaba ngokwezinga elithile kwanquma kusengaphambili indima yomuntu elinganiselwe ohlelweni lwamandla okukhiqiza. 

    Kusukela maphakathi nekhulu le-19, ukuthunyelwa kwenhloko-dolobha kwaqala ngezinga elikhulu emazweni aseYurophu. Esinye sezici eziphawulekayo zemakethe yemali phakathi nalesi sikhathi kwaba ukudlondlobala kwezimali mboleko zikahulumeni, izikweletu eziboshiwe, eziya ekuthuthukisweni kwengqalasizinda, ikakhulukazi izitimela. Izinga legolide libe negalelo ekwandeni kokuhamba kwemali, isici salo esibalulekile kwakuwukuhamba ngokukhululeka kwegolide kanye nokuguqulelwa kwezimali zezwe zibe yigolide.

   Ukubunjwa nokuthuthukiswa komnotho womhlaba kwaqhubeka kanjani? Ake sithathe uhambo oluncane emlandweni.

ukuphila emhlabeni (okungenani 25)

Ukubamba iqhaza ekuhlukaniseni umsebenzi wamazwe ngamazwe kanye nokuba nguchwepheshe ekukhiqizeni umkhiqizo othile, izwe liwukhiqiza ngokweqile maqondana nezidingo zasekhaya. Insalela efanayo, kodwa yempahla ehlukile, yenziwa kwamanye amazwe. Kunesidingo sokushintshisana ngezimpahla, futhi umnotho wala mazwe uxhumene.

Umhlaba (umhlaba) umnotho, ingqikithi yawo, izigaba eziyinhloko zokwakheka nentuthuko. Izihloko zomnotho wezwe lanamuhla. Izinhlobo eziyinhloko zezifundazwe emnothweni womhlaba. Umqondo wokuthuthuka okujikelezayo komnotho womhlaba. Izinhlobo zemijikelezo. Izici zesigaba sesimanje somjikelezo wezimo zebhizinisi ezijwayelekile. Ukuthuthukiswa komnotho okungalingani kanye nokuhlukaniswa kwamazwe emnothweni womhlaba.

3. Ukuhwebelana komhlaba wonke kanye nokuvela komnotho omkhulu.

ukuphila emhlabeni

    Ubudlelwano bokugeleza obudlulela ngale kwemingcele kazwelonke bakha izinga lamazwe ngamazwe.Le ndawo futhi ihlanganisa inethiwekhi yemisebenzi engekho emthethweni: ukushushumbiswa kwezidakamizwa, izikhali, ukufuduka ngaphansi komhlaba.

    Ngokombono wethu, umnotho womhlaba, umnotho wezwe uwuhlelo lwezomnotho oluzikhiqizayo ngokwalo ezingeni lamandla okukhiqiza, ubudlelwano bokukhiqiza kanye nezici ezithile zobudlelwano obungaphezu kwesakhiwo, kuze kube yilapho umnotho wezwe ofakwe kuwo unokuhambisana okuthile. ngalinye kulawa mazinga amathathu.

   Njengamanje, abasebenzisi abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-30 basebenza ku-inthanethi. Ukuthuthukiswa kokwaziswa kwaqinisekisa ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kohlelo lwezezimali kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezimakethe zezimali ezithile zamakhompiyutha zomhlaba jikelele ezifana ne-Forex, i-Globel Costadien, njll. Uhlelo lwekhompyutha ye-SWIFT interbank luhlanganisa amabhange angu-5,000, ukuthengiselana kwezinsizakalo zezentengiselwano, kanye nezibambiso.

    Kodwa-ke, naphezu kokuthi umnotho wezifunda zasendulo wawungokwemvelo, uvaliwe, emazweni aseMpumalanga nasendulo asendulo, abathengisi benza uhambo olude kakhulu. Izinhlelo zezomnotho zasendulo nezasendulo zafinyelela izinga lokuthuthukiswa komnotho okwathi isikhathi eside somlando akuzange kudlulwe ukwakheka kombuso waseYurophu ngeNkathi Ephakathi. Ayeyindawo ekude yezifunda ezisempumalanga. Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yesibili, izinga lentuthuko emazweni aseMpumalanga laliphindwe izikhathi ezingu-1.5-2 kunamazwe aseNtshonalanga Yurophu. Ukuphakama kweMpumalanga ngaphezu kweNtshonalanga kwabonakala ikakhulukazi ekuthuthukisweni kobuhlakani, izinga lokufunda laliphindwe izikhathi ezingu-10-20. Izinga laseYurophu lalingaphansi kwezinga lenkathi yasendulo yoMbuso WaseRoma ngekhulu lesi-8. BC. - II ekhulwini. AD

   Ukuze zandise ukuncintisana kwazo, izikhungo zaseYurophu ziye zakhulula ngokushesha izikhungo zazo zezezimali. Izimakethe zezimali ezintsha zekusasa lemali, izilinganiso zenzalo, nezinketho zemali zidaliwe futhi ziyasebenza.

     NgoJanuwari 1958, iSivumelwano Se-European Economic Community (EEC) kanye ne-European Atomic Energy Community saqala ukusebenza. Njengamanje, i-EEC ihlanganisa amazwe ayi-15. Ngeminyaka yawo-1950 kanye nawo-1980, amazinga okuthuthukiswa kwe-United States namanye amazwe anezimboni ahlangana. Nokho, izwe ngalinye alikwazanga ukusondela ngokwanele ezingeni lokuthuthukiswa komnotho waseMelika. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukubusa komnotho wembulunga yonke kwe-United States kwaqala ukuwohloka kwaba isimiso sezingxenye eziningi. Phakathi neminyaka ye-1960-8, inani lokuthekelisa lenyuka lisuka ku-11 laya ku-21%, futhi emazweni asathuthuka - lisuka ku-18 laya ku-26%.

   Isigaba 1 - Lena i-20-30s yekhulu lama-20 - izenzakalo zenhlekelele ohlelweni lwezomnotho lomhlaba. Ukuqala kwalesi sikhathi kwabekwa iMpi Yezwe Yokuqala kanye nenguquko eRussia. Ukudluliswa komnotho wezwe ukuya empini, ukucekelwa phansi kwezinsiza ezinkulu zezimboni nezabantu ngesikhathi sempi, ukuphangwa kwezomnotho kwezindawo ezithathiwe.

Ukulingana kwamandla okuthenga kuqondwa njengesilinganiso phakathi kwezinhlobo zemali ezimbili zamazwe ahlukene, esibalwe ngesisekelo samandla azo okuthenga ngokuphathelene neqoqo elithile lezimpahla namasevisi.

Ngokusho kwedatha ka-2018, izikhundla ezihamba phambili kule modeli ngezaseChina ($ 25.3 trillion), i-United States ($ 20.5 trillion), i-India ($ 10.5 trillion), iJapan neJalimane. Ngokuvamile, ngokumelene nesizinda se-Periphery enkulu, izikhungo zezomnotho ezinamandla ezintathu zakhiwe emnothweni womhlaba - iYurophu, iNyakatho Melika kanye ne-East Asia.


Konke okusemhlabeni kuxhumene.
Linganqunywa kanjani izinga lokuthuthukiswa komnotho wamazwe ngesakhiwo sokuqashwa kwabantu? Iziphi izifundo osebenzisa kuzo ulwazi namuhla lapho ufunda izinto ezifundisayo?

Umhlaba kanye Belarus. Khumbula isakhiwo somkhakha womnotho waseBelarusian futhi usiqhathanise nesilinganiso somhlaba.


I-Club of connoisseurs of economic geographers.
Umnotho womhlaba usudlule ezigabeni ezimbalwa. Isigaba sokuqala , esihlanganisa isikhathi kuze kufike ekhulwini le-15, sibizwa ngokuthi i- prehistory yomnotho wezwe futhi sibonakala ngokuvela kohwebo lwezwe. Abakhileyo eGibhithe lasendulo (Umfanekiso 96) babehwebelana nezizwe ezingomakhelwane, bethenga kuzo izinkuni, insimbi, nezinkomo ukuze bathole imisebenzi yezandla kanye nemikhiqizo yezolimo. Kusukela ngekhulu le-15 kuze kube ingxenye yokuqala yekhulu le-17. - isigaba sesibili - isigaba sokuvela komnotho wezwe. Phakathi nenkathi ye-Great Geographical Discoveries, "unxantathu wegolide" wokuhweba (Fig. 97) wakhiwa phakathi kwe-Old and New Worlds. Izindwangu, izikhali, iziphuzo zalethwa zisuka eYurophu zayiswa e-Afrika; ukusuka e-Afrika kuya eMelika - "impahla yokuphila" (izigqila zokusebenza emasimini nasezimayini); ukusuka eMelika ukuya eYurophu - ikhofi, ushukela, izinsimbi eziyigugu, ukotini, njll. Isigaba sesithathu sasihlanganisa ingxenye yokuqala ye-17 - ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-19. futhi yahlotshaniswa noshintsho olusuka endaweni yokukhiqiza kuya ekukhiqizeni umshini . Esigabeni sesine sokugcina - kusukela ngekhulu le-XIX. kwaze kwaba sekuqaleni kwekhulu lamashumi amabili. - izingxenye ezintathu zawo eziyinhloko zakhiwa emnothweni wezwe: imakethe yomhlaba, imboni yemishini emikhulu kanye nezokuthutha. Ngenxa yalokho, lesi sigaba sabizwa ngokuthi ukuqedwa kokubunjwa komnotho wezwe .

Lesi sakhiwo sinqunywa isabelo sezimboni ngazinye, imikhakha emincane, izinhlobo zemisebenzi yezomnotho enanini eliphelele lokukhiqiza. Isakhiwo sokuqashwa kwabantu sibuye sikhombise ukwakheka kwemboni yezomnotho (Fig. 99).

Isakhiwo somnotho wezwe siwuhlelo lwezimakethe zikazwelonke zezimpahla, izinsizakalo, imali, ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe kwezinhlangano zokukhiqiza nokuhlanganiswa, izikhungo zezimali zamazwe ngamazwe. Umnotho womhlaba ngokwesiko uhlanganisa imikhakha emithathu. Emkhakheni wezemfundo ephakeme, ezimweni ze-post-industrialization, umkhakha we-quaternary waqala ukuhlukaniswa (Fig. 98). Kunezinhlaka zemikhakha kanye nezindawo zomnotho womhlaba.


Isakhiwo somkhakha womnotho womhlaba siyiqoqo lezingxenye zalo (izimboni, imikhakha engaphansi, izinhlobo zemisebenzi yezomnotho) ezithuthuke ngokomlando ngenxa yokuhlukaniswa kwezenhlalo kwezemisebenzi.

Imodeli yamathemu amathathu ihambisana nokuhlukaniswa komnotho womhlaba ube amazwe asethuthukile, asathuthuka kanye namazwe aneminotho eguquguqukayo. Amazwe athuthukile akhiqiza u-69% wesamba somkhiqizo womhlaba, amazwe asathuthuka - 27% kanye namazwe anomnotho oguqukayo - 4.0%. Ngokwalesi modeli, amazwe e-Center, Periphery kanye ne- Semi -periphery nawo ahlukaniswa (Fig. 101).

Isakhiwo sendawo somnotho womhlaba sibonisa izilinganiso phakathi kwamazwe ngokwamandla awo omnotho asekelwe ku-gross domestic product (GDP). Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zezindawo zomnotho womhlaba.

Izigaba zokwakhiwa komnotho wezwe. Umnotho womhlaba uyiqoqo elisungulwe ngokomlando nelithuthukayo lezomnotho kazwelonke kanye nezimboni ezakhele, ezixhunywe ubudlelwano bomnotho womhlaba obusekelwe ekuhlukaniseni imisebenzi yamazwe ngamazwe.

Imodeli yamathemu amabili isekelwe ekuhlukaniseni umnotho womhlaba ube amazwe athuthukile kwezomnotho nasathuthuka ( amazwe aseNyakatho namazwe aseNingizimu, ngokulandelana) (Fig. 100).

I-Club of connoisseurs of economic geographers. Amazwe alesi Sikhungo aqondwa njengezifunda ezithuthuke kakhulu zaseNyakatho ezinomnotho wangemva kwezimboni (isibonelo, i-USA, Japan), ephethe inhloko-dolobha enkulu, ubuchwepheshe bamuva, kanye nezinsizakusebenza ezinekhono eliphezulu. I- Periphery ihlanganisa amazwe asathuthuka anesakhiwo esikhulu sezolimo noma esokuqala sezimboni, ngokusabalala kobumpofu nendlala, nabasebenzi abanamakhono aphansi (ngokwesibonelo, iKenya, i-Afghanistan). I- Semi- Periphery ihlanganisa amazwe asathuthuka anesakhiwo sezimboni esiqinile (isb., i-India, i-China), kanye nezifunda ze-post-socialist.

Isibonelo, uma isethi efanayo yezimpahla zabathengi kanye nezinsizakalo zibiza i-hryvnia engu-500 e-Ukraine namadola angu-100 e-United States, khona-ke amandla okuthenga alingana ama-hryvnia angu-5 ngedola elilodwa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ama-hryvnia angu-5 e-Ukraine angathenga cishe idola elingu-1 e-US, noma okuphambene nalokho.

Imodeli ye-polynomial (decimal) ibonisa ubukhulu phakathi kwamazwe ayishumi ayinhloko ngokwamandla ezomnotho. Inkomba yayo eyinhloko yisamba somkhiqizo wasekhaya (ngokuvumelana nokuthengwa kwamandla okulingana - PPP) .

Ngokwesakhiwo somkhakha, umuntu angakwazi ukunquma uhlobo lwezwe (isibonelo, ezolimo, izimboni, i-post-industrial). Uhlobo lwezolimo lubonakala ngokudlanga kwezolimo. Ikhona enanini elincane lamazwe athuthuke kancane. Isibonelo, e-Ethiopia, lapho abantu abangaphezu kuka-80% beqashwe kwezolimo. Uhlobo lwezimboni lubonakala ngesabelo esikhulu semboni. Lolu hlobo lwethulwa, isibonelo, e-Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico. Isakhiwo se-post-industrial sibonakala ngokudla kwezinsizakalo ngaphezu kokukhiqizwa kwezinto ezibonakalayo, okujwayelekile emazweni athuthuke kakhulu. Ngokwesibonelo, eFrance, e-Austria.

kwenzeka kancane kancane, njengoba izimfuneko ezihambisanayo zithuthukiswa, futhi ukwakheka kwaso kuphawula ukuzuzwa kwesimo esisha esinezakhiwo ezingezona ezemvelo kunoma yiziphi izakhi zokuqala (izingxenye) ngokuhlukana.

Izinhlaka zebhizinisi lamazwe ngamazwe zithatha indawo ekhethekile phakathi kwezifundo ze-M. x. Ngakho, ku-con. 2000s bekunama-TNCs angabazali angaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezingama-80 alawula iSt. 900 izinkulungwane ezingaphansi kanye namagatsha phesheya. Cishe u-40% wezimpahla zama-TNC amakhulu emhlabeni ayi-100 atholakala ngaphandle kwamazwe asekhaya ezinkampani zawo ezingabazali. I-TNK mediate apprx. 70% yenani lamazwe ngamazwe ukuhweba kanye ne-50% ye-prom yomhlaba. ukukhiqizwa, okukhiqiza cishe ingxenye yesine yesamba se-GDP yomhlaba. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi. ukuhwebelana phakathi kwenkampani ngaphakathi kwe-TNCs (imisebenzi phakathi komzali nezinkampani ezingaphansi kwayo, kanye nezigaba zamakhanda namagatsha azo) zibalelwa cishe. U-40% yenani lemisebenzi yamazwe ngamazwe. uhwebo. Ama-TNC afaka isandla ekuthuthukisweni kwezimboni zobuchwepheshe obuphezulu ezikhiqiza imikhiqizo eyinkimbinkimbi yokugcina, ejulisa inqubo yamazwe ngamazwe. ukuhlukaniswa kwezabasebenzi ngendlela ye-intra-industry specialization kanye nokubambisana.

Mayelana ne-M.x. njengohlelo olugcwele, umuntu angakhuluma kuphela kusukela esikhathini lapho ukuthuthukiswa okusebenzayo kobudlelwane bezimakethe zomhlaba kwaholela ekwakhiweni komnotho olinganayo futhi ohlangene. indlela yokuzalanisa umhlaba. Kwesimanje umlando we-M.x. Kuyisiko ukuhlukanisa lezi zigaba ezilandelayo zokuthuthuka kwayo: 1870-1914 - ukuthuthuka okusheshayo kwenqubo yokwenziwa kwezwe lamazwe ngamazwe. ezomnotho, ukubandakanyeka kwezinga elikhulu kwe-nat. amabhizinisi kwezomnotho wangaphandle. imisebenzi, ukwakheka kohlelo lwezimali emhlabeni; 1914 - ukuphikisana. 1940s - isikhathi sokuhlakazeka: ukwephulwa kwezwe elisunguliwe. amapulazi. izibopho ngenxa yezimpi ezimbili zomhlaba, ukuvela konxiwankulu obuhlukile. indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist. amamodeli ezomnotho. ukuthuthukiswa; 1950-80s - post-war ukubuyiselwa kazwelonke umnotho, ukuwa kwesimiso samakholoni, ukuthuthukiswa komnotho wesifunda. ukuhlanganiswa, umnotho omkhulu ukuncintisana kwe-socialist yomhlaba kanye nonxiwankulu bomhlaba izinhlelo; kusukela ngo-1990 kuze kube manje - isici isici yesimanje. isikhathi sokuthuthuka kwe-M.x. - ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke, isici esiyinhloko okuyinqubo yokuphuma ekuwohlokeni komjikelezo wokuzala ojwayelekile. amabhizinisi angaphandle kwe-nat. imingcele kanye nokusatshalaliswa kwayo kokuyinhloko. ukonga izifunda zesimanje ukuthula. Ngalesi sisekelo, kukhona ukuwohloka kancane kancane kwezomnotho, ezombangazwe namasiko. amazwe namamodeli amabhizinisi, abonakala ngokukhula kokuhlanganiswa, ukwethembana kanye nomthelela ofanayo emisebenzini yezifundazwe nezinkampani ezizimele zezomnotho. Inqubo yokuhwebelana kwezomnotho emhlabeni jikelele. umsebenzi waphenduka uM.x. kusenesikhathi Ikhulu lama-21 ohlelweni oluhlangene, olubonakala ngezinga eliphezulu lokuncika ekuboleni. izici zokungazinzi. Ngaphakathi kohlaka lwalolu hlelo, ukuvela nokuthuthukiswa komnotho womhlaba wonke kungenzeka. izinkinga, eyokuqala eyazibonakalisa ku-M. x. ekupheleni kweshumi leminyaka lokuqala lekhulu lama-21. Ngesikhathi esifanayo kwaba nokuwa kwe-socialist emhlabeni. uhlelo, oluholele ekubuseni okungenamibandela kwezinhlobo zokuphatha zezimakethe. ohlelweni oluhlangene, olubonakala ngezinga eliphezulu lokuncika ekuboleni. izici zokungazinzi. Ngaphakathi kohlaka lwalolu hlelo, ukuvela nokuthuthukiswa komnotho womhlaba wonke kungenzeka. izinkinga, eyokuqala eyazibonakalisa ku-M. x. ekupheleni kweshumi leminyaka lokuqala lekhulu lama-21. Ngesikhathi esifanayo kwaba nokuwa kwe-socialist emhlabeni. uhlelo, oluholele ekubuseni okungenamibandela kwezinhlobo zokuphatha zezimakethe. ohlelweni oluhlangene, olubonakala ngezinga eliphezulu lokuncika ekuboleni. izici zokungazinzi. Ngaphakathi kohlaka lwalolu hlelo, ukuvela nokuthuthukiswa komnotho womhlaba wonke kungenzeka. izinkinga, eyokuqala eyazibonakalisa ku-M. x. ekupheleni kweshumi leminyaka lokuqala lekhulu lama-21. Ngesikhathi esifanayo kwaba nokuwa kwe-socialist emhlabeni. uhlelo, oluholele ekubuseni okungenamibandela kwezinhlobo zokuphatha zezimakethe. Ngesikhathi esifanayo kwaba nokuwa kwe-socialist emhlabeni. uhlelo, oluholele ekubuseni okungenamibandela kwezinhlobo zokuphatha zezimakethe. Ngesikhathi esifanayo kwaba nokuwa kwe-socialist emhlabeni. uhlelo, oluholele ekubuseni okungenamibandela kwezinhlobo zokuphatha zezimakethe.

M.x. kwesimanje izimo uhlelo oluyinkimbinkimbi ye-multidimensional enesisekelo salo kanye nezindlela zokulawula ext. ukusebenzisana (isakhiwo esiphezulu), kanye nokwakheka kwesihloko. Isisekelo salesi simiso nat. umnotho (izwe) elikhiqiza izimpahla, izinsizakalo, izinto zempahla yengqondo, ukusabalalisa, ukuhwebelana ngenqubo yamazwe ngamazwe. ukonga ubudlelwano nabathengi bomkhiqizo wokugcina. Ngokuhambisana nokuhlukaniswa kwamazwe ngamazwe izinhlangano ngesimo sentuthuko kanye nezinga lomnotho. Amazwe omhlaba asekhulile ahlukaniswe abe iminotho ethuthukile nesathuthuka (okuhlanganisa namazwe athuthuke kancane). Kuyisiko futhi ukuhlukanisa amaqembu ezifunda ezinezinga eliphezulu, eliphansi neliphakathi.

Izindlela zomnotho womhlaba

Ngomqondo othi "M. X." Umqondo ohlobene eduze "wemakethe yomhlaba", ongachazwa ngomqondo obanzi njengohlelo lwenhlangano nezomnotho. ubudlelwano, ukusebenza ngokudilizwa kokuthengisa nokuthenga. izinto ezibonakalayo nezingaphatheki kuzo zonke izingxenye zomhlaba wokukhiqiza, ukusatshalaliswa, ukuhwebelana nokusetshenziswa. M.x. ihlanganisa izwe lonke izimakethe amazwe axhumene wodwa ezohwebo nezomnotho. ubudlelwano. Umqondo "wemakethe yomhlaba" uhlanganisa: i-sectoral cut nat. amapulazi, ukuhlanganisa izimakethe zokukhiqiza, ukushintshisana nokusetshenziswa kwezimpahla nezinsizakalo ezithile (isibonelo, imakethe yomhlaba wonke kawoyela, izimoto, izinsiza zezivakashi, ukuhamba ngendiza); ingxenye ekhulisiwe ehlotshaniswa nefomu elihambisanayo le-int. ukonga

Ukufundwa kokusebenza nokuthuthukiswa kwe-M. x. njengoba uhlelo empeleni lwehliselwa ekuhlaziyweni kokuziphatha kwezifundo zalo. Bazenzela bona ngokwabo umnotho wangaphandle. umsebenzi, noma ngezinga elithile ukudala izimfuneko nemibandela, yakha indawo yangaphandle ukuze isetshenziswe. Ngokombono we-microeconomics, izifundo ze-M. x. ngokwesiko ihlukaniswe ngabathengi ngabanye kanye namafemu-abakhiqizi. Kusukela ku-macroeconomic umbono, izihloko zayo kukhona nat. izakhiwo zezomnotho kazwelonke kanye nemikhakha yazo eyinhloko - yangempela, yezezimali, njll. Ngamunye wabo, ngokwezinga elithile noma kwelinye, uhileleke emisebenzini yezomnotho yangaphandle. umsebenzi, okuyinto ngokulandelana kuthinta lonke izinga lokuqashwa kanye nokwehla kwamandla emali, inani eliphelele lokutshalwa kwezimali kanye nenani lezindleko zabathengi. Ngaphansi kwalezi zimo, umbuso, omelwe ngochwepheshe bawo. izikhungo (Ibhange Elimaphakathi, Isevisi Yezintela, Umnyango Wezobudlelwano Bomnotho Wangaphandle, njll.) ifuna ukulawula ubudlelwano bomnotho wangaphandle ngokufanele. umsebenzi: igqugquzela ukuqaliswa kwezinye zezinhlobo zayo futhi ingakhuthazi ukuqaliswa kwezinye, igxile ekuzuzweni komnotho omkhulu othile. imigomo. ) uhlose ukulawula umnotho wamazwe angaphandle ngendlela efanele. umsebenzi: igqugquzela ukuqaliswa kwezinye zezinhlobo zayo futhi ingakhuthazi ukuqaliswa kwezinye, igxile ekuzuzweni komnotho omkhulu othile. imigomo. ) uhlose ukulawula umnotho wamazwe angaphandle ngendlela efanele. umsebenzi: igqugquzela ukuqaliswa kwezinye zezinhlobo zayo futhi ingakhuthazi ukuqaliswa kwezinye, igxile ekuzuzweni komnotho omkhulu othile. imigomo.

Umthombo obaluleke kakhulu wokuthuthukiswa kwe-M. x. ukungqubuzana kwayo okungokwemvelo bekukhona kuwo wonke umlando wayo. Kwesimanje izimo, laba bamuva bathola ukubonakaliswa kwabo ngobuningi bohlelo lwezomnotho lomhlaba (lokhu kwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukufezwa kokuvumelana phakathi kwamazwe ngamanye namaqembu ezifundazwe), ukugcina (nokwanda ngenani lemingcele), naphezu kwemizamo eyenziwe, igebe phakathi kobumpofu nengcebo emhlabeni, okwandisa ukungazinzi emazweni ngamazwe uhlelo lwezezimali, ukubusa yedwa kwezimboni eziningi M. x. (okulokhu kubangela ukungabaza kokubili ukusebenza ngempumelelo kanye nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukusebenzisa imigomo yokuncintisana kwezimakethe zamahhala) kanye nokuba buthaka kwamandla ombuso. ukulawulwa ezingeni lomuntu ngamunye. ezomnotho. Ukwandisa ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kwemiphumela emibi yeminotho yomhlaba. izinqubo zidinga ukuxazulula izingxabano ezikhona nezivelayo M. x. i-interstate esebenzayo. umthethonqubo.

Ukuxhumana phakathi kwezwe lonke umnotho ongaphakathi kohlaka lwe-M. x. mediate international. ukonga ubudlelwano, obuhlanganisa ukuhwebelana kwamazwe ngamazwe ngezimpahla nezinsizakalo, ukudluliswa kwempahla yengqondo, ubudlelwano bezezimali nezikweletu, ukuhanjiswa kwezimali ezinkulu kanye nezinsiza zabasebenzi, amafomu azo aphuma kuwo (ukuvakasha kwamazwe ngamazwe, ukuhlanganiswa kwezomnotho, njll.). Isisekelo M.x. - ukukhiqizwa kwezinto ezibonakalayo nezingezona ezibonakalayo (kokubili esikalini sikazwelonke kanye nesamba semikhiqizo kazwelonke, emhlabeni wonke, isikali seplanethi), ukusatshalaliswa, ukushintshaniswa nokusetshenziswa kwazo.

Ukwakhiwa komnotho wezwe

Kusakhiwo esiphezulu se-M.x. kufanele kubalulwe engqikithini yamazwe ngamazwe. ohulumeni. izinhlangano inhloso yazo kuwukuxhumanisa ubudlelwano bezifunda ekuwohlokeni. izindawo zokusebenza. Isikhundla samazwe ngamazwe izinhlangano manje seziqinisiwe ngenxa yokuphathisa kuzo amanye amandla ekuqaleni ayewuphawu lwemvelo kuphela. ohulumeni. I-Global intl. izikhungo ziyacelwa ukuthi ziphathe i-M. x., ukuvumelanisa izintshisekelo kanye nokuxhumanisa inqubomgomo yezangaphandle yezwe. izifundazwe, ihlinzeke ngosizo lwezezimali nolweluleko emazweni ahlangabezana nobunzima ekuthuthukisweni kwawo. Amazwe ngamazwe izinhlangano azigcini nje ngokulamula ubudlelwano phakathi kwamazwe,

Amazwe ngamazwe I-United Nations, i-International Monetary Fund, i-World Bank, nezinye izinhlangano ezidlala indima ehamba phambili ekulawuleni umnotho wamazwe ngamazwe I-World Trade Organization (WTO) ibambe indawo ekhethekile phakathi kwezinhlangano ezinjalo.imakethe kanye nokwakhiwa kwe yesimanje global M.x. Amazwe ajoyine i-WTO aqhuba umnotho wamazwe angaphandle okuvunyelwene ngawo inqubomgomo igxile ekuthuthukisweni kokuhwebelana okuzuzisayo kanye nokuthuthukisa amazwe angaphandle. utshalomali. Indima ebalulekile yokulawula iphinde idlalwe ngamaqoqo esifunda samazwe, njenge-European Union, North Amer. Isivumelwano sohwebo lwamahhala (NAFTA), imakethe evamile yaseNingizimu. IMelika (MERCOSUR), njll.

Balawula ukusebenzisana ngaphakathi kwesistimu ye-M. x., izakhi zesakhiwo sayo esiphezulu. ukuhleleka emnothweni womhlaba. uhlelo lulawulwa ngokugcwele ngamazwe ngamazwe umthetho - isethi yezomthetho. izinkambiso ezidalwe ngokuhlanganyela ziwohloka. izifundazwe ukuze kwenziwe lula ubudlelwano babo (izintshisekelo) ekuwohlokeni. izindawo. Isici esibalulekile samazwe ngamazwe umthetho - izinkambiso zawo zokulawula zihamba phambili kune-nat. izimiso. I-oda ku-M.x. asekelwe kanye nobuholi kwezomnotho ngobukhulu., ezombusazwe. kanye nezempi amandla emibuso.

Izingxenye ezibaluleke kakhulu ze-M.x. (umnotho womhlaba) esikhathini samanje. izimo: isethi yemikhiqizo. umsebenzi womuntu, okungase kuboniswe macroeconomic. izinkomba zohlobo nenani lenkathi ethile (imvamisa unyaka wekhalenda) [isb., isamba se-GDP yomhlaba (ngamadola aseMelika), ingqikithi yokukhiqizwa kwezimoto emhlabeni wonke ngonyaka (ngamayunithi ayizigidi), isamba sikakolweni wesivuno somhlaba ( ngesigidi amathani)]; isethi yamazwe ngamazwe ukonga ubudlelwano obunquma ubuhlobo phakathi kwe-nat. amapulazi; umsebenzi womhlaba wonke wezinkampani zamazwe ngamazwe (TNCs) kanye namabhange aphesheya asephenduke izinhlangano zezomnotho ezihamba phambili; amazwe, amaqembu adidiyelwe kanye nemiphakathi yamazwe, kanye namazwe ngamazwe. izinhlangano ezakhiwe ngokulandela imigomo yomhlaba wonke, yesifunda kanye neyomkhakha; uhlelo lomhlaba, olwakhiwe ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa konxiwankulu. indlela yokukhiqiza (okuthiwa umnotho wobunxiwankulu bomhlaba), okubalulekile okuyinzuzo, amandla okushayela kuyizimiso zemakethe yentuthuko; umphumela wezomnotho. umsebenzi waso sonke isintu, kucatshangelwa isimo sendawo ezungezile nezinsiza ezikhona. okubalulekile okuyinhloko okuyinzuzo, amandla okushayela izimiso zemakethe yentuthuko; umphumela wezomnotho. umsebenzi waso sonke isintu, kucatshangelwa isimo sendawo ezungezile nezinsiza ezikhona. okubalulekile okuyinhloko okuyinzuzo, amandla okushayela izimiso zemakethe yentuthuko; umphumela wezomnotho. umsebenzi waso sonke isintu, kucatshangelwa isimo sendawo ezungezile nezinsiza ezikhona.

UMNOTHO WOMHLABA, iqoqo lezinkimbinkimbi zezomnotho kazwelonke (umnotho) ezixhumene zodwa ngaphakathi kohlaka lohlelo lokuhlukaniswa kwemisebenzi yamazwe ngamazwe ngobudlelwano obuhlukahlukene kwezomnotho, ezombusazwe, ezenhlalo namasiko kanye nobunye. Isimanje M.x. ihlanganisa umnotho we-approx. Amazwe angama-270 nezindawo ezincikene nenani labantu bethu eliphelele. Abantu abayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-6.8 kanye ne-GDP isiyonke yezigidigidi ezingama-58.2. amadola ngesilinganiso sokushintshaniswa kwemakethe (amadola angama-72.5 trillion at purchasing power parity) (2009). Isici esibalulekile sika-M.x. wukusebenzelana kwezakhi zayo eziyinhloko - nat. ezomnotho. Igama elifanayo lomqondo "womnotho womhlaba" (noma "umnotho womhlaba") umqondo "womnotho womhlaba".

Izingxenye zomnotho womhlaba


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